A & P 6

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A & P 6
2012-03-05 10:48:41

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  1. describe taxonomy of the prokaryotic cell
    all living cells are divided into 5 kingdoms and are classified as either prokaryotes or eukaryotes, the prokaryotes belong to the Kingdom Monera and consist (all the single-celled prokaryons) of the bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue green algae)
  2. describe the size of the prokaryotic cell
    they inhabit nearly everywhere, among the smallest organisms- average size range of bacteria are 0.5-2.0 microns (compared to blood cells- 7.5) despite small size they have maximum surface area for absorption of nutrients
  3. describe the basic cell components of the prokaryotic cell
    cell structures: cytoplasm(primarily water w/ carbs, lipids, & enzymes), ribosomes(protein synthesis centers), nucleoid(chromosome), inclusion bodies(store molecules essential to cell function), some prokaryotes- secrete a capsule(contributes to pathogenicity) & have plasmids(extrachromosomal DNA important for transfer of genetic material)
  4. describe the prokaryotic cell surface structures & features
    • cell wall: provides shape & stability, contains peptidoglycan(immense, covalently-linked molecule), large polymer resembling a chain link fence, many antibiotics target the cell wall(ex: penicillins)
    • cell membrane: regulates transport of material in & out of cell, it's a biphospholipid membrane
    store molecules essential to cell function such as glycogen
  6. define CAPSULE
    protective structure that serves as a defense mechanism
  7. define PLASMIDS
    self-replicating extrachromosomal DNA that carry one or more pieces of genetic information, not required to sustain life
  8. identify the primary shapes & arrangements of prokarotic bacterial cells
    bacteria come in 3 major shapes or morphological types: 1st- cocci(sperical bacterial cells), 2nd- bacilli(rod-shaped bacteria-hotdog) some are in between cocci & bacilli(they are oval in shape) and referred to as coccobacilli, (others look like a comma-shape) called vibrios, 3rd- 2 sub-groups(long, thin, coiled, rod-shaped): spirillia (loosely coiled or wavy) & spirochetes (non-rigid, tightly coiled, corkscrew-shaped rods)
  9. a little more on COCCI
    • spherical, non-motile bacteria
    • subcategories: diplo(pair), strepto(chain), staphylo(irregular cluster), tetra(group of four)
  10. define GRAM STAIN
    • (determine thick or thin wall) method groups medically important bacteria into 2 categories:
    • gram-positive- thick, peptidoglycan-rich cell wall that also contains teichoic acid, causes retention of crystal violet (blue) dye
    • gram-negative- thin peptidoglycan cell wall & a lipoprotein-rich cell membrane, releases crystal violet dye when rinsed with alcohol, the safranin (pink) counterstain is retained