Blood vessels that cary blood to and from the lungs
vessels that transport blood to and from all body tissues
Receives O2 poor blood from body and pumps it to the lungs to pick up O2 and expel CO2
Right side of the heart
Receives the O2 blood from lungs and pumps to body
Left side of the heart
Posterior broad surface of the heart
The Heart is located in the ____________ Mediastinum
The purpose of the circulatory system is to ______________.
Pump blood throughout the body. This includes not only O2 and CO2, but nutrients, water hormone, nitrogenous waste, etc.
Deoxygenated blood enters the _________ side. Oxygenated blood is pumped out the ________ side.
The hearts position in thorax
Situated obliquely, 2/3 to the left, 1/3 to the right
The apex is directed _____ and ______ in the thorax.
anteriorly and left
left or lateral border
right and left atria
The pulmonary truck and the aorta exit the heart
The pulmonary truck is __________ to the ascending aorta.
The _____________ _________ passes from the left pulmonary artery to the root of the aorta.
The superior vena cava enters the heart from the ____________.
Superior right side
The inferior border
right and left ventricles
The inferior vena cava approches the heart from the ________________.
Inferior right side
Anterior and posterior Interventricular Sulci
vertical grooves separating ventricles on anterior and posterior surfaces, respectively.
Inner Layer of the Pericardium
Visceral pericardium or Epicardium
Middle layer of the pericardium
Parietal layer- Serous or parietal pericardium
Outside layer of the parietal pericardium
There is no potential space between the ____ and ____ layers of the pericardium.
fibrous and parietal
The Pericardial Space (cavity) is a serious fluid filled space between __________.
parietal and visceral layers
How does the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space between the visceral and parietal pericardium affect the heart?
It prevent the heart chambers from expanding and filling
An accumulation of blood from injured pericardial capillary
Lack of serous fluid causeing pain when visceral and parietal layers adhere
The inner most layer of the heart comprised of an endothelial lining
The thick middle layer of cardiac muscle
The outer layer of visceral pericardium
The __________ serve as filling chambers
The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the ___________ and ______________.
Sup. and inf. vena cava
The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the ________________.
The _______________ are the pumping chambers.
The right ventricle pumps blood through the ____________ to the __________.
Pulmonary arteries to the lungs
The left ventericle pumps blood through the ________ to the body.
The myocardium of the ___________ ventricle is much thicker than the other.
The right and left ventricles are separated by ____________________________.
an interventricular septum
The interventricular septum is muscluar _______, and membranous ____________.
The posterior wall of the right atrium
Sinus venarum - smooth walled
The posterior wall of the right atrium receives the ______, ____________, and __________.
Sup and Inf. vena cava and Coronary Sinus
The posterior wall of the Rt. Atrium also contains:
Opening to the coronary sinus
SA and AV node
The Anterior wall of the Rt atrium is made up of ______________, which is separated from the smooth post. wall by _____________.
Pectinate muscle, Crista terminalis
The anterior and posterior walls of the Rt. Atrium are joined by _____________ ________ ___________.
Pectinate-lined right auricle
Supports the structure of walls in ventricle ("beams of meat")
A smooth walled, cone shaped outflow in the Right ventricle leading to the Pulmonary trunk. AKA infundibulum
Responsible for anchoring leaflets of valve
Conical projections of myocardium that project via chordae tendinae to the tricupsid valve (rt ventricle) or bicuspid valve (left ventricle).
Left Ventricle: ant and post
Right Ventricle: ant, post, and septal
A muscular bundle in the right ventricle that runs from the interventricular septum to the ant. pap muscle. Contains elements for transmission of electrical impulse. Prevents over dilation of ventricle
The left atrium is a _____________ chamber that receives ____________________, and is joined by __________________.
smooth walled, the four pulmonary veins, pectinate-lined left auricle
The strongest pumping ventricle with the thickest myocardium
Types of atrioventricular valves:
tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral)
The valve separating the right atrium and right ventricle
The valve separating the left atrium and left ventricle
Bicuspid or mitral valve
The two types of Semilunar valves:
the Aortic Semilunar and Pulmonary Semilunar
The valve that lies between the ascending aorta and the left ventricle
The Aortic Semilunar Valve
The valve that lies between the Pulmonary trunk and the right ventricle
The Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
Two rare examples of arteries having valves are:
Aorta and Pulmonary Trunk
Because the fetus receives oxygenated blood from the mother...
the fetus does not oxygenate blood in its lungs
Structures the fetal heart has to keep most of the blood from going to its lungs:
Foramen ovale and Ductus arteriosus
A hole to enable blood to move directly from right to left atrium.
The foramen ovale closes shortly after birth to become the
A duct from the left pulmonary artery to the descending aorta to re-channel blood (oxygenated) from going into the lungs, to going into the aorta
When an infant is said to be born with a "hole in the heart" it means....
Part of the membranous interventricular septum is malformed ("ventricular septal defect" or VSD).
ASD or "atrial septal defect"
a patent foramen ovale in the interatrial septum
The arterial supply of oxygen to the muscles of the heart
The _____ coronary artery branches into: Anterior Interventricular Artery, Circumflex Artery and lelft Marginal Arteries
The ___________ Coronary artery branches into to Right Marginal Artery and the Posterior Interventricular Artery.
Venous drainage of deoxy blood from the muscles of the heart
The Great Cardiac Vein becomes the ___________, which empties into the ______ ___________.
Coronary sinus, Right atrium
The Middle and small vardiac veins empty into the __________ ______.
Only the __________ cardiac and ____________ cardiac veins DO NOT empty into the coronary sinus.
The Great Cardiac Vein runs along side the ___________ _______________ ________.
Anterior Interventricular artery
The Middle Cardiac Vein runs along side the ________________ __________ ____________.
Posterior Interventricular artery
The small cardiac vein comes from the same area as the _________ _____________.
Right marginal artery
The cardiac skeleton is made up of
Functions of the Carciac Skeleton:
-Encircles the 4 valves
-Attaches myocardium together
-Provides support for valves around orfice
-Prevents impules from passing from atria to ventricles
Function of Sinoatrial node
Impulse-generating tissue located in rt. atrium.
Creates normal sinus rhythm
"impulses to contract spread through atria"
___________ __________ prevents the spread of impulses to ventricles.
Fuction, location of Atrioventricular Node
Located in base of right atrium
Transmits impulses to ventricles via AV Bundle (Bundle of His)
Extensions of the AV bundle into the papillary muscles and myocardium
During the ________ __________, the two artia contract together follwed by the subsequent contraction of the two ventricles
Ventricular contraction (atria are relaxing)
Ventricular relaxation (atria are contracting)
The contraction of the ventricles causes the atrioventricular valve to slam shut
The semilunar valves slam shut to prevent the backflow (regurgitation) of blood from great arteries back into the ventricles.
Autonomic innervation of the heart passes mainly through the _________ __________
Sympathetic innervation from __________ and ______________
Sympathetic trunk and cardiac nerves
Parasympathetic innervation from the _______.
Vagus nerve (CN X)
During a sympathetic response, baroreceptors and chemoreceptors in carotid artery and arch of aorta detect ___________ and/or ____________.
Low BP, high CO2 concentrations
During a sympathetic response: cardio-___________ centers in meduulla oblongate sends signals via cardiac nerves to ___________________ in the heart. The nodes create impulses that are ____________ to increase heart rate.
accelatory, SA and AV nodes, faster and stronger
During a sympathetic response ________________ centers in medulla oblongata sends signals via ____________ nerves to arteriese and veins. Vessel diameter constricts, then blood pressure ______________.
Vaso-constriction, sympathetic, increases
During a parasympathetic response, baroreceptors and chemoreceptors in carotid artery and arch of aorta detect ______________ and/or _________________.
High bp, low co2 concentrations
During a parasympathetic response, Cardio-___________ centers in medulla oblongata sends signals via vagus nerves to ___________ in the heart. The nodes create impulses that are ___________________ to decrease heart rate.
inhibitory, SA and AV nodes, slower and weaker
During a parasympathetic response, ____________ centers in medulla oblongata sends signals via ___________ nerves to arteries and veins. Vessel diameter increases and bp ___________.
vaso-dilation, parasympathetic, decreases
Sympathetic innervation from cervical and thoracic sympathetic chaing ganglia via _______________:
-Pass throug the _____________ to nodal tissue
-Stimulation ___________ heart rate and force of contractions
-__________ bp in arteries
Parasympathetic innervation from ______________:
-pass through cardiac plexus to __________ and ______________________________
-_________ heartrate and _____________ force of contraction
-__________ bp in arteries
nodal tissue and smooth muscle of coronary arteries