The total sum of beliefs that people have about themselves. The self-concept is made up of cognitive molecules called self-schemas.
the beliefs about oneself that guide the processing of self-relevant information
The self-reference effect
is the tendency to recall information related to self
is the theory that people differ in arrangement of thoughts concerning self-- in terms of organizational complexity
refers to a process where we imagine how other people see us.
when internal cues are difficult to interpret, people gain self-insight by observing their own behavior.
over justification effect
the tendency for a intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors
When is the OJE more unlikely to occur?
-when the base rate of the reward starts off low
-when extrinsic rewards are not salient(reminding)
-when rewards are offered as a sign of competence (not bride)-not as an attempt to control behavior.
when people are uncertain of their abilities or opinions—that is, when objective information is not readily available—they evaluate themselves through comparisons with similar others
two-factor theory of emotion
first, the person must experience the symptoms of physiological arousal (racing heart, perspiration, tightening stomach, etc.) Second, a person must make a cognitive interpretation that explains the source of the arousal.
an affectively charged component of the self. It refers to our positive and negative evaluations of ourselves
Terror Management Theory
states that humans cope with the fear of their own death by constructing worldviews that help to preserve their self-esteem
states that self-focused attention leads people to notice self-discrepancies, thereby motivating either an escape from self-awareness or a change in behavior
refers to the actions people take to handicap their own performances in order to build an excuse for anticipated failure
the desire to have others perceive us as we truly perceive ourselves.
the tendency to regulate one’s own behavior to meet the demands of social situations.
the process by which we try to shape what others think of us and what we think of ourselves.