test terms needed for the second test in syntax and what not
Also known as helping verbs. Include will, shall, may, might, can, could, must, ought to, should, would, used to, need
Can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, and would. Followed by the bare stem. "I might go."
has, have, had. Followed by past participle.
be, being, been. Followed by the present participle.
be, being, been. Followed by past participle
Verb form used as an adjective. "The raging dragon flew across the sky." (raging) "I have gone to school." (have)
The thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active. [Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action] Ex. "The professor teaches the students."
the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. [Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action] Ex: "The students are taught by the professor."
Describes an action that is done to someone or something. It requires an object to complete verb- describes it’s meaning. For transitive verbs, you can ask the questions “who(m) or what.” "Lee threw the basketball."
Does not transfer the action to an object. It does not require the addition of an object to complete its meaning. For intransitive verbs, you can ask the questions “when, where, how, or why.” "The bus arrived late."
A verb that takes or can take two objects: the direct object and the indirect object. "The school board gave [the teachers IO] [a raise DO]
A verb that requires both a direct object and another object (usually an object of a preposition) or a complement. "My grandpa calls [teenagers] [blithering idiots]"
Any word or phrase that completes the sense of a subject, an object, or a verb. "A glacier is a huge body of ice." (body)
A verb that connects the subject to the complement. They are sometimes called linking verbs. Linking verbs do not describe action. "That food smells nice." ('Smells' connects the subject to the adjective that describes it.)
Follows a linking verb; it is normally an adjective or a noun that renames or defines in some way the subject."This glacier is not yet fully formed." (formed) Adjective complements are also called predicate adjectives; noun complements are also called predicate nouns or predicate nominatives.
Follows and modifies or refers to a direct object. It can be a noun or adjective or any word acting as a noun or adjective. "The clown got the children too excited." (excited)
A direct or indirect object of a verb. "Granny left Raoul all her money." (Raoul) (money)
In African American Language (AAE), habitual "be" is uninflected. It is also passive progessive. "He be working Tuesdays." (He works habitually on Tuesdays)
Remote past "been"
In African American English (AAE), remote past "been" is perfect progressive. "He been working." (he has been working)
In African American English (AAE), completive "done" expresses the recent past. "I done fly it."
Sentence level "not"
Comes after the first auxiliary (or copula "be). "I eat." "I do not eat."
A clause functioning like a noun or noun phrase. Also called noun clause. A nominal clause can be a subject, object, or complement in sentence structure. I took a walk [after I noticed (that it was sunny out)].
A subordinate clause with an adverbial function. "He got angry when I started to beat him at chess." (when) Adverbial clauses express such meanings as time, place, condition, concession, reason, purpose, and result.