Micronutrients

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Author:
catitasilva
ID:
139852
Filename:
Micronutrients
Updated:
2012-03-05 17:39:16
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micronutrients
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micronutrients
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  1. Vitamin A (Retinoids)
    function?
    function: vision, wound healing, sperm formation, pregnancy maintenance
  2. Vitamin A (Retinoids)
    deficiency?
    toxicity?
    C/C?
    • deficiency: keratomalacia (keratin in eye), infertility, eye damage, night blindness
    • toxicity: cleft palate, peeling skin, hair loss
    • C/C: Stargardt Disease - macular dystrophy & retinitis pigmentosa
  3. Vitamin D
    function?
    Ca2+ & Pi absorption(gut) & reabsorption(kidney)
  4. Vitamin D
    deficiency?
    toxicity?
    C/C?
    • deficiency: pre-eclampsia, bone & teeth malformation
    • toxicity: hypercalcemia, weight loss, impaired osteoblast maturation (embryo)
    • C/C: Rickets
  5. Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
    function?
    antioxidant in RBCs & lung cell membranes
  6. Vitamin E
    deficiency?
    toxicity?
    C/C?
    • deficiency: hemolytic anemia, liver degeneration, flaky skin
    • toxicity: rare
    • C/C: AVED - ataxia, inability of liver to pass Vit E into blood --> sever neurological defects
  7. Vitamin K (Quinone)
    function?
    Ca2+ chelation; required for blood clotting
  8. Vitamin K (Quinone)
    deficiency?
    toxicity?
    C/C?
    • deficiency: hemorrhage, bone malformation, Ca2+ salts in arteries
    • toxicity: hemolytic anemia
    • C/C: kernicterus & Hemorrhagic Disease of Newborn (HDN) bilirubin accumulates & crosses BBB into brain

    kernicterus: chronic bilirubin encephalopathy
  9. Water Soluble Vitamins
    • The Rhythm Nearly Proved Bio Foli Contagious
    • B1 - Thiamin
    • B2 - Riboflavin
    • B3 - Niacin
    • B5 - Pantothenic Acid
    • B6 - Pyridoxine
    • B7 - Biotin
    • B9 - Folate
    • B12 - Contagious

    C - Ascorbate
  10. Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
    function?
    needed for oxidative decarboxylation for enzymes
  11. Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
    deficiency?
    toxicity?
    C/C?
    • deficiency: Beri-Beri, uncoordinated movements, convulsions
    • toxicity: rare
    • C/C: Wernecke-Korsakoff (confusion, confabulation, uncoordinated)
  12. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
    function?
    FMN & FAD, H+ & electron transfers
  13. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
    deficiency?
    toxicity?
    C/C?
    • deficiency: psychological deviations, cheilosis, glossitis, seborrhic dermatitis, cleft palate
    • toxicity: rare
    • C/C: destroyed during phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia
  14. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
    function?
    deficiency?
    toxicity?
    C/C?
    • function: NAD & NADP, H+ & electron transfer
    • deficiency: pellagra - 4Ds diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death
    • toxicity: nicotinic acid - vasodilator
    • C/C: Isoniazid - vitamin antagonist (TB drug) & Alcoholics need B3 for detox
  15. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
    function
    deficiency
    toxicity
    C/C
    • function: CoA component
    • deficiency: infection, fatigue, vomiting - unspecific
    • toxicity: diarrhea
    • C/C: stimulates GI after surgery
  16. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
    function
    deficiency
    toxicity
    C/C
    • function: AA metabolism, hormone synthesis, co-factor (transaminase, deaminase, decarboxylase)
    • deficiency: microcytic hypochromic anemia, oxalate in urine, neuromotor seizure
    • toxicity: dependency, sensory neuropathy & motor coordination loss
    • C/C: treats morning sickness
  17. Vitamin B7 (biotin)
    function
    deficiency
    toxicity
    C/C
    • function: needed for Ab & pancreatic amylase formation, carboxylase co-factor
    • deficiency: immune suppression, maculosquamous dermatitis, alopecia
    • toxicity: None
    • C/C: neonatal Multiple Carboxylase Deficiency (MCD) after weaning; Tx: more biotin
  18. Vitamin B9 (Folate)
    function
    C/C
    • function: collects C units & donates them for nucleotide formation
    • C/C: Sulfanilamide-antibiotic prevents B9 formation
  19. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
    function
    deficiency
    toxicity
    C/C
    • function: mutase cofactor & folate recovery
    • deficiency: megaloblastic anemia (lack of DNA), demyelinization (neuro problems)
    • toxicity: excreted by kidneys
    • C/C: Pernicious Anemia (B12 deficiency)
  20. Vitamin C (Ascorbate)
    function
    deficiency
    toxicity
    C/C
    • function: mineral reuptake & collagen synthesis
    • deficiency: scurvy, swollen joints, tooth loss, weak CT
    • toxicity: kidney stones, oxidative damage, pregnancy - infant dependency
    • C/C: Scurvy - collagen ; common in smokers

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