MEDA 110 Ch. 8

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MEDA 110 Ch. 8
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MEDA 110 Ch. 8
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  1. Nervous System
    • Divided into the Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).
    • PNS: Consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
  2. Peripheral Nervous System
    • Contains Afferent Nerves, which carry impulses from the body to the CNS.
    • Also contains Efferent Nerves, which carry impulses from the CNS to the muscles and glands.
  3. Peripheral Nervous System
    • Further broken down into:
    • Somatic Nervous System: Provides voluntary control over skeletal muscle contractions.
    • Autonomic Nervous System: Provides involuntary control over smooth muscle, caridac muscle, and glandualr activity and secretions in response to the commands of the CNS.
  4. Autonomic Nervous System
    Contains two types of nerves: sympathetic and parasympathetic.
  5. Sympathetic Nerves
    Regulate essential involuntary body functions such as increasing the heart rate, constricting blood vessels, and raising the blood pressure.
  6. Parasympathetic Nerves
    Regulate essential involuntary body functions such as slowing the hear rate, increasing peristalsis of the intestines, increasing glandular secretions, and relaxing sphincters.
  7. Neuron
    Actual nerve cell.
  8. Abscence Seizure
    A small seizure in which there is a sudden temporary loss of conciousness lasting only a few seconds.
  9. Acetylcholine or Nuerotransmitter
    A chemical substance in the body tissues that facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses from one nerve to another.
  10. Agnosia
    • Loss of mental ability to understand sensory stimuli (such as sight, sound, or touch) even though the sensory organs themselves are functioning properly.
    • Optic Agnosia: Inability to interpret the images the eye is seeing is known as optic agnosia.
  11. Agraphia
    Inability to convert one's thoughts into writing.
  12. Alexia
    Inability to understand written words.
  13. Analgesia
    Without sensitivity to pain.
  14. Anesthesia
    Without feeling or sensation.
  15. Aneurysm
    A localized dilatation in the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation of the artery, usually caused by hypertension or atherosclerosis.
  16. Apraxia
    Inability to perform coordinated movements or use objects properly.
  17. Arachnoid Membrane
    Weblike middle layer of three membranous layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
  18. Astrocyte
    Star shaped neroglial cell found in the CNS.
  19. Astrocytoma
    Tumor of the brain or spinal cord composed of astrocytes.
  20. Ataxia
    Without muscular coordination.
  21. Aura
    The sensation an individual experiences prior to the onset of a migrane headache or an epileptic seizure.
  22. Axon
    Part of the nerve cell that transports nerve impulses away from the nerve cell body.
  23. Blood Brain Barrier
    Protective characteristic of the capillary walls of the brain that prevents the passage of harmful substances from the bloodstream into the brain tissue or CSF.
  24. Bradykinesia
    Abnormally slow movement.
  25. Brain Stem
    • Contains:
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla Oblongota
  26. Brudzinski's Sign
    A positive sign of meningitis, in which there is an involuntary flexion of the arm, hip, and knee when the patient's neck is passively flexed.
  27. Burr Hole
    Hole drilled into the skull using a form of drill.
  28. Cauda Equina
    Lower end of the spinal cord and the roots of the spinal nerves that occupy the spinal canal below the level of the first lumbar vertebra, so named because it resembles a horse's tail.
  29. Causalgia
    A sensation of an acute burning pain along the path of a peripheral nerve, sometimes accompanied by erythema of the skin, due to injury to peripheral nerve fibers.
  30. Cephalalgia
    Pain in the head, headache.
  31. Cerebellum
    Part of the brain responsible for coordinating voluntary muscular movement, located behind the brain stem.
  32. Cerebral Concussion
    A brief interruption of brain function, usually with a loss of conciousness lasting for a few seconds. This transient loss of consciousness is usually caused by blunt trauma (a blow) to the head.
  33. Cerebral Contusion
    Small scattered venous hemorrhages in the brain, better described as a "bruise" of the brain tissue occuring when the brain strikes the inner skull.
  34. Cerebral Cortex
    The thin outer layer of nerve tissue, known as gray matter, that covers the surface of the cerebrum.
  35. Cerebrospinal Fluid
    The fluid flowing through the brain and around the spinal cord that protects them from physical blow or impact.
  36. Cerebrum
    Largest and uppermost part of the brain. It controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions, and voluntary movements.
  37. Cheyne-Stokes Respirations
    Abnormal pattern of breathing chracterized by periods of apnea followed by deep rapid breathing.
  38. Coma
    A deep sleep in which the individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to external stimuli.
  39. Comatose
    Pertains to being in a coma.
  40. Contracture
    A permanent shortening of a muscle causing a joint to remain in an abnormally flexed position, with resultant physical deformity.
  41. Gyrus or Convolution
    • One of the many elevated folds of the surface of the cerebrum.
    • Plural for gyrus is Gyri.
  42. Craniotomy
    Surgical incision into the cranium or skull.
  43. Dementia
    A progressive irreversible mental disorder in which the person has deteriorating memory, judgment, and ability to think.
  44. Demyelination
    Destruction or removal of the myelin sheath that covers a nerve or nerve fiber.
  45. Dendrite
    A projection that extends from the nerve cell body. It receives impulses and conducts them on to the cell body.
  46. Diencephalon
    The part of the brain located between the cerebrum and the midbrain. Its main structures consist of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland.
  47. Diplopia
    Double vision, also called ambiopia.
  48. Dura Mater
    Outermost of the three membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
  49. Dyslexia
    A condition chracterized by an impairment of the ability to read. Letters and words are often reversed when reading.
  50. Dysphasia
    Difficult speech.
  51. Embolism
    An abnormal condition in which a blood clot becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood within the vessel.
  52. Epidural Space
    The space immediately outside the dura mater that contains a supporting cushion of fat and other connective tissues.
  53. Ganglion
    A knotlike mass of nerve tissue found outside the brain or spinal cord (plural: ganglia).
  54. Gray Matter
    Part of the nervous system consisting of axons that are not covered with myelin sheath, giving a gray appearance.
  55. Hemiparesis
    Slight or partial paralysis of one half of the body.
  56. Hemiplegia
    Paralysis of one half of the body.
  57. Herpes Zoster or Shingles
    An acute infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox, characterized by painful vesicular lesions along the path of a spinal nerve.
  58. Hyperesthesia
    Excessive sensitivity to sensory stimuli, such as pain or touch.
  59. Hyperkinesis
    Excessive muscular movement and physical activity.
  60. Hypothalamus
    A part of the brain located below the thalamus that controls many functions, such as body temperature, sleep, and appetite.
  61. Interneurons
    Connecting neurons that conduct impulses from afferent nerves to or toward motor nerves.
  62. Kernig's Sign
    A diagnostic sign for meningitis marked by the person's inability to extend the leg completely when the thigh is flexed upon the abdomen and the person is sitting or lying down.
  63. Longitudinal Fissure
    A deep groove in the middle of the cerebrum that divides the cerebrum into the right and left hemispheres.
  64. Medulla Oblongota
    • One of the three parts of the brain stem.
    • Contains the cardiac,vasomotor, and respiratory centers of the brain.
  65. Meninges
    The three layers of protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
  66. Microglia
    Small neuroglial cells found in the interstitial tissue of the nervous system that engulf cellular debris, waste products, and pathogens within the nerve tissue.
  67. Myelin Sheath
    A protective sheath that covers the axons of many nerves in the body. It acts as an electrical insulator and helps to speed the conduction of nerve impulses.
  68. Neuralgia
    Severe, sharp, spasmlike pain that extends along the course of one or more nerves.
  69. Neuritis
    Inflammation of nerves.
  70. Neroglia
    Supporting tissue of the nervous system.
  71. Nuchal Rigidity
    Rigidity of the neck. The neck is resistant to flexion. This condition is seen in patients with meningitis.
  72. Oligodendrocyte
    A type of neurologlial cell found in the interstitial tissue of the nervous system. Its dendrite projections coil around the axons of many neurons to form the myelin sheath.
  73. Palliative
    Soothing.
  74. Paraplegia
    Paralysis of the lower extremities and trunk.
  75. Parasympathomimetic
    Copying or producing the same effects as those of the parasympathetic nerves.
  76. Parasthesia
    Numbness or tingling.
  77. Phagocytosis
    Process by which cells engulf and destroy microorganisms and cellular debris.
  78. Pia Mater
    Innermost of the three membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
  79. Pineal Body or Pineal Gland
    A small cone shaped structure (located in the diencephalon of the brain) thought to be involved in regulating the body's biological clock and that produces melatonin.
  80. Plexus
    Network of interwoven nerves.
  81. Pons
    Acts as a bridge to connect the medulla oblongota and the cerebellum to the upper portions of the brain.
  82. Quadriplegia
    Paralysis of all 4 extremities.
  83. Radiculotomy or Rhizotomy
    Surgical resection of a spinal nerve root (a procedure performed to relieve pain).
  84. Receptor
    • A sensory nerve ending.
    • I.e. A nerve ending that receives impulses and responds to various types of stimulation.
  85. Sensory Nerves or Afferent Nerves
    Transmitters of nerve impulses toward the CNS.
  86. Shunt
    A tube or passage that diverts redirects body fluid from one cavity or vessel to another, may be a congenital defect or artificially constructed for the purpose of redirecting fluid.
  87. Stimulus
    Any agent or factor capable initiating a nerve impulse.
  88. Subarachnoid Space
    The space located just under the arachnoid membrane that contains cerebrospinal fluid.
  89. Subdural Space
    The space located just beneath the dura mater that contains serous fluid.
  90. Synapse
    The space between the end of one nerve and the beginning of another, through which nerve impulses are transmitted.
  91. Thalamus
    The part of the brain located between the cerebral hemispheres and the midbrain. The thalamus receives all sensory stimuli, except those of smell, and relays them to the cerebral cortex.
  92. Thrombosis
    An abnormal condition in which a clot develops in a blood vessel.
  93. Tonic-Clonic Seizure
    A seizure characterized by presence of muscle contraction or tension followed by relaxation, creating a jerking movement of the body.
  94. Ventricle
    A small hollow within the brain that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
  95. White Matter
    The part of the nervous system consisting of axons covered with myelin sheath giving a white appearance.
  96. A-
    Without, not.
  97. An-
    • Without, not.
    • Anencephaly
  98. -algesia or -alges/o
    Sensitivity to pain.
  99. -algia
    Pain.
  100. -asthenia
    • Strength.
    • Myasthenia Gravis
  101. Brady-
    Slow.
  102. Encephal/o
    Brain.
  103. -esthesia or Esthesi/o
    Sensation or feeling.
  104. Gli/o
    Neuroglia or gluey substance.
  105. -lexia
    Reading
  106. Myel/o
    Spinal cord or bone marrow.
  107. -paresis
    Partial paralysis.
  108. -phasia
    Speech.
  109. -praxia
    Perform.
  110. Thec/o
    Sheath.
  111. Ton/o
    Tension, tone.
  112. Alzheimer's Disease
    Deterioration of a persons itellectual functioning.
  113. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease).
    A severe weakening and wasting of the involved muscle groups, usually beginning with the hands and progressing to the shoulders, upper arms, and legs.
  114. Anencephaly
    Absence of the brain and spinal cord at bith.
  115. Bell's Palsy
    Temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face following trauma to the face, an unknown infection, or a tumor pressing on the facial nerve rendering it paralyzed.
  116. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    A pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel due to inflammation and swelling of the tendons, causing intermittent or continuous pain that is greatest at night.
  117. Cerebral Palsy
    A collective term used to describe congenital brain damage that is permanent but not progressive. It is characterized by the child's lack of control of voluntary muscles.
  118. Cerebrovascular Accident
    Involves death of a specific portion of brain tissue, resulting from a decrease in blood flow (ischemia) to that area of the brain.
  119. Degenerative Disk
    The deterioration of the intervertebral disk, usually due to constant motion and wear on the disk.
  120. Encephalitis
    The inflammation of the brain or spinal cord tissue largely caused by a virus that enters the CNS when the person experiences a viral disease a viral disease such as measles or mumps or through the bite of a mosquito or tick.
  121. Grand Mal Seizure or Tonic Clonic Seizure
    An epileptic Seizure characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness and by generalized involuntary muscular contraction, vacillating between rigid body extension and an alternating contracting and relaxing of muscles.
  122. Petit Mal Seizure or Absence Seizure
    A small seizure in which there is a sudden temporary loss of consciousness lasting only a few seconds.
  123. Guillain-Barre Syndrome
    Acute polyneuritis ("inflammation of many nerves") of the PNS in which the myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response, and sudden muscle weakness, which usually follows a viral gastrointestinal or respiratory infection.
  124. Migraine Headache
    Recurring, pulsating, vascualr headache usually developing on one side of the head.
  125. Cluster Headache
    Occurs typically two to three hours after falling asleep, described as extreme pain around one eye that wakens the person sleep.
  126. Epidural Hematoma
    A collection of blood (hematoma) located above the dura mater and just below the skull.
  127. Subdural Hematoma
    Subdural hematoma is a collection of blood below the dura mater and above the arachnoid layer of the meninges.
  128. Huntington's Chorea
    An inherited neurological disease chracterized by rapid, jerky, involuntary movements and increasing dementia due to the effects of the basal ganglia on the neurons.
  129. Hydrocephalus
    An abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that causes the ventricles of the brain to dilate, resulting in an increased head circumference in the infant with open fontanels.
  130. Primary Intracranial Tumors
    Arise from gliomas, malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue, and from tumors that arise from the meninges.
  131. Metastatic Intracranial Tumors
    Occur as a result of metastasis from a primary site such as the lung or breast. They occur more frequently than primary neoplasms.
  132. Meningitis
    A serious bacterial infection of the meninges, the covering of the brain and spinal cord, that can have residual debilitating effects or even a fatal outcome if not diagnosed and treated promptly with appropriate antibiotic therapy.
  133. Multiple Sclerosis
    A degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS attacking the myelin sheath in the spinal cord and brain, leaving it sclerosed (hardened) or scarred and interrupting the flow of nerve impulses.
  134. Myasthenia Gravis
    A chronic progressive neuromuscular disorder causing severe skeletal muscle weakness (without atrophy) and fatigue, which occurs at different levels of severity.
  135. Neuroblastoma
    A highly malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system.
  136. Parkinson's Disease
    A degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system chracterized by a gradual onset of symptoms such as a stooped posture with the body flexed forward, a bowed head, a shuffling gait, pill rolling gestures, an expressionless, masklike facial appearance, muffled speech, and swallowing difficulty.
  137. Peripheral Neuritis
    A general term indicating inflammation of one or more peripheral nerves, the effects being dependent on the particualr nerve involved.
  138. Poliomyelitis
    An infectious viral disease entering through the upper respiratory tract and affecting the ability of spinal cord and brain motor neurons to receive stimulation. Muscles affected become paralyzed without the motor nerve stimulation.
  139. Postpolio Syndrome
    Progressive weakness occuring at least 30 years after the initial poliomyelitis attack.
  140. Reye's Syndrome
    An acute brain encephalopathy along with fatty infiltration of the internal organs that may follow acute viral infections occurs in children between 5 and 11 often with a fatal result.
  141. Spina Bifida Cystica
    A congenital defect of the CNS in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed normally and a cyst protrudes through the opening in the back usually at the level of the fifth lumbar or first sacral vertebrae.
  142. Meningocele (Challenge Word)
    A cystlike sac covered with skin or a thin membrane through the bony defect in the vertebrae containing meninges.
  143. Meningomyelocele (Challenge Word)
    A cystlike sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protruding through the bony defect in the vertebrae that contains meninges.
  144. Spina Bifida Occulta
    Congenital defect of the CNS in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed. A dimpling over the area may occur.
  145. Tay-Sachs Disease
    A congenital disorder caused by altered lipid metabolism, resulting from an enzyme deficiency.
  146. Trigeminal Neuralgia (Tic Douloureux)
    Short periods of severe unilateral pain, which radiates along the fifth cranial nerve.
  147. Babinski's Reflex
    • Tested by stroking the sole of the foot, begining at midheel and moving upward and lateral to the toes.
    • A positive Babinski's sign occurs when there is dorsiflexion of the great toe and fanning of the other toes.
  148. Cerebral Angiography
    A visualization of the cerebral vascular system via X-ray after the injection of a raiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel.
  149. Chordotomy
    A neurosurgical procedure for pain control accomplished through a laminectomy, ih which there is surgical interference of pathways within the spinal cord that control pain.
  150. Cisternal Puncture
    Involves insertion of a short, beveled spinal needle into the cisterna magna to drain CSF or to obtain a CSF specimen.
  151. Craniotomy
    Is a surgical procedure that makes an opening into the skull.
  152. Echoencephalography
    Ultrasound used to analyze the intracranial structures of the brain is termed echoencephalography.
  153. Electroencephalography (EEG)
    Measurement of electrical activity produced by the brain and recorded through electrodes placed on the scalp is termed EEG.
  154. Laminectomy
    Surgical removal of the bony arches from one or mroe of the vertebrae to relieve pressure on the spinal cord.
  155. Intrathecal Injections
    Material injected into the lumbar subarachnoid space for circulation through the CSF.
  156. Myelography
    The introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral canal through X-ray examination.
  157. Neurectomy
    A neurosurgical procedure to relieve pain in a localized or small area by incision of cranial or peripheral nerves.
  158. Pneumoencephalography
    Used to visualize radiographically one of the ventricles or fluid-occupying spaces in the CNS.
  159. Polysomnogram
    PSG is a sleep study or sleep test that evaluates physical factors affecting sleep.
  160. Positron Emission Tomography
    PET scan produces computerized radiographic images of various body structures when radioactive substances are inhaled or injected.
  161. Romberg test
    Used to evaluate cerebellar function and balance.
  162. Stereotaxic Neurosurgery
    Performed on a precise location of an area within the brain that controls specific functions and my involve destruction of brain tissue with various agents such as heat, cold, and sclerosing or corrosive fluids.
  163. Sympathectomy
    Surgical procedure used to interrupt a prtion od the sympathetic nerve pathway for the purpose of relieving chronic pain.
  164. Tractotomy
    Involves a craniotomy through which the anterolateral pathway in the brain stem is surgically divided in an attempt to relieve pain.
  165. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
    Form of cutaneous stimulation for pain relief that supplies electrical impulses to the nerve endings of a nerve close to the pain site.

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