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What is the first spectrum of the source-filter theory of vowel production and is also called the glottal spectrum (because the glottis is the source of the vowel sound/voicing; sound exists at larynx before being filtered by vocal tract)?
What is the second specturm of the source-filter theory of vowel production where a resonance curve represents frequency response of the adult male vocal tract positioned for schwa vowel (with resonances at 500, 1500, & 2500 Hz)?
What is the third spectrum of the source-filter theory of vowel production which shows the sound when it emerges at the lips after it's been filtered. (Same F0 & harmonics as in glottal source but amplitudes have been modified)
What 2 things are always true of F1?
- Lowest in frequency
- Most intense
How many formants do we recognize in speech?
Irregular shape of the vocal tract makes it a ________ _______ resonator that transmits a wide range of frequencies around each resonanting frequency (RF).
Broadly Tuned resonator
The vocal tract is a _______-_______ resonator which means that it's a tube closed at the glottis and open at the lips.
Vocal tract is a __________ resonator whose frequency response changes depending on its shape. Varying areas of cavities resonate at different frequencies.
Vocal tract consists of a series of connected air-filled containers (pharynx, oral cavity, & nasal cavity) that act as a ________-________ ________ to transmit certain frequencies within its bandwidth.
Pass-Band Resonator/Band-Pass Filter
What happens to frequencies that are outside of the Pass-Band Filters of the vocal tract?
They are attenuated
The vocal tract resonates at numerous resonating frequencies. RFs are odd-number multiples of the lowest RF. RFs of the vocal tract are called _________. If
F1 has a frequency of X, then
F2 will have a frequency of ______
F3 will have a frequency of ______
- F1=250 Hz then F2=750 Hz
- F1=250 Hz then F3=1250 Hz
- F2=300 Hz then F3=500 Hz
- F3=250 Hz then F1=50 Hz
Sound that emerges from vocal tract's filtering system has the ________ fundamental frequency and harmonics as glottal sound. What's changed?
- Amplitudes of the harmonics (some amplified others damped)
__________ ____________ are related to the volumes of oral/pharyngeal spaces because containers of air will resonate at particular frequencies depending on their volumes.
- Fundamental Frequencies
- Larger volumes=Lower frequencies
- Smaller volumes=Higher frequencies
Shaping of the vocal tract is independent of _______ ______ ________ so the source & transfer functions are independent.
Vocal Fold Vibration
There is an _________ relationship between F1 frequency and tongue height. The higher the tongue position, the _______ the F1 frequency. Why?
- High tongue position increases volume of pharyngeal cavity which responds to lower frequencies
High vowels = ________ F1.
Low vowels = ________ F1.
- High vowels = Low F1
- Low vowels = High F1
F2 frequency is related to the _______ of the oral cavity (the space in front of tongue constriction and lips)
Back vowels have a _______ distance between the tongue constriction and lips and are typically produced with ______ ________, which elongates the oral cavity.
Back vowels=_____ F2
Front vowels=_____ F2
- Lip Rounding
- Back vowels=Low F2
- Front vowels=High F2
In spectograms, what is represented on the vertical axis?
In spectograms, what is respresented on the horizontal axis?
In spectograms, how is intensity represented?
Darkness of trace on screen
What is the major sound source for stop consonants?
Pressurized air forcefully exiting oral cavity
Voiceless stops are ________ in duration than thoes of voiced stops because voiceless stops are characterized by __________. ________ air moving through glottis delays VF closure, resulting in longer burst.
Time during which articulators are forming blockage & intraoral pressure is building up; can be seen in voiced stops as the voice bar on spectogram.
Quick aperiodic sound which follows the silent gap and are usually seen in initial/medial stop positions (can't occur in final position).
Time between release of articulatory blockage (beg. of burst) to beginning of VF vibration for following vowel; measured in milliseconds and is indication of coordination bet/ laryngeal/articulatory systems.
Voice Onset Time (VOT)
How does VOT change as place of articulation moves backward in oral cavity?
- Measured in intial stops
Negative value indicating that VFs are vibrating before articulatory release occurs.
Prevoicing VOT Lead
Onset of VF vibration follows shortly or delayed a long time after articulatory burst/release.
VOT with Short/Long Lag
Voice onset and articulatory release occur at the same time yeilding a VOT of zero.
How does VOT variability in elderly speakers compare with young adults?
Energy in fricatives is ________ in duration than in stops.
Other languages have different _______ from English.
How many deciduous teeth do children have in each jaw?
What is the primary muscle which makes up the lips?
When the velum acts as a valve, it touches ______ ________ ________.
Posterior Pharyngeal Wall
Upcoming sound influences preceding sound.
Preceding sound influences an ensuing sound.
F0 ________ in speakers at the end of interrogative sentences.
F0 __________ in speakers at the end of declarative sentences.