Speech Science Test 2

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  1. What is the first spectrum of the source-filter theory of vowel production and is also called the glottal spectrum (because the glottis is the source of the vowel sound/voicing; sound exists at larynx before being filtered by vocal tract)?
    Source Function
  2. What is the second specturm of the source-filter theory of vowel production where a resonance curve represents frequency response of the adult male vocal tract positioned for schwa vowel (with resonances at 500, 1500, & 2500 Hz)?
    Transfer function
  3. What is the third spectrum of the source-filter theory of vowel production which shows the sound when it emerges at the lips after it's been filtered. (Same F0 & harmonics as in glottal source but amplitudes have been modified)
    Output function
  4. What 2 things are always true of F1?
    • Lowest in frequency
    • Most intense
  5. How many formants do we recognize in speech?
  6. Irregular shape of the vocal tract makes it a ________ _______ resonator that transmits a wide range of frequencies around each resonanting frequency (RF).
    Broadly Tuned resonator
  7. The vocal tract is a _______-_______ resonator which means that it's a tube closed at the glottis and open at the lips.
    Quarter-Wave resonator
  8. Vocal tract is a __________ resonator whose frequency response changes depending on its shape. Varying areas of cavities resonate at different frequencies.
    Variable resonator
  9. Vocal tract consists of a series of connected air-filled containers (pharynx, oral cavity, & nasal cavity) that act as a ________-________ ________ to transmit certain frequencies within its bandwidth.
    Pass-Band Resonator/Band-Pass Filter
  10. What happens to frequencies that are outside of the Pass-Band Filters of the vocal tract?
    They are attenuated
  11. The vocal tract resonates at numerous resonating frequencies. RFs are odd-number multiples of the lowest RF. RFs of the vocal tract are called _________. If
    F1 has a frequency of X, then
    F2 will have a frequency of ______
    F3 will have a frequency of ______
    • Formants
    • F1=250 Hz then F2=750 Hz
    • F1=250 Hz then F3=1250 Hz
    • F2=300 Hz then F3=500 Hz
    • F3=250 Hz then F1=50 Hz
  12. Sound that emerges from vocal tract's filtering system has the ________ fundamental frequency and harmonics as glottal sound. What's changed?
    • Same
    • Amplitudes of the harmonics (some amplified others damped)
  13. __________ ____________ are related to the volumes of oral/pharyngeal spaces because containers of air will resonate at particular frequencies depending on their volumes.
    Larger volume=_______
    Smaller volume=__________
    • Fundamental Frequencies
    • Larger volumes=Lower frequencies
    • Smaller volumes=Higher frequencies
  14. Shaping of the vocal tract is independent of _______ ______ ________ so the source & transfer functions are independent.
    Vocal Fold Vibration
  15. There is an _________ relationship between F1 frequency and tongue height. The higher the tongue position, the _______ the F1 frequency. Why?
    • Inverse
    • Lower
    • High tongue position increases volume of pharyngeal cavity which responds to lower frequencies
  16. High vowels = ________ F1.
    Low vowels = ________ F1.
    • High vowels = Low F1
    • Low vowels = High F1
  17. F2 frequency is related to the _______ of the oral cavity (the space in front of tongue constriction and lips)
  18. Back vowels have a _______ distance between the tongue constriction and lips and are typically produced with ______ ________, which elongates the oral cavity.
    Back vowels=_____ F2
    Front vowels=_____ F2
    • Longer
    • Lip Rounding
    • Back vowels=Low F2
    • Front vowels=High F2
  19. In spectograms, what is represented on the vertical axis?
  20. In spectograms, what is respresented on the horizontal axis?
  21. In spectograms, how is intensity represented?
    Darkness of trace on screen
  22. What is the major sound source for stop consonants?
    Pressurized air forcefully exiting oral cavity
  23. Voiceless stops are ________ in duration than thoes of voiced stops because voiceless stops are characterized by __________. ________ air moving through glottis delays VF closure, resulting in longer burst.
    • Longer
    • Aspiration
    • Turbulent
  24. Time during which articulators are forming blockage & intraoral pressure is building up; can be seen in voiced stops as the voice bar on spectogram.
    Silent Gap
  25. Quick aperiodic sound which follows the silent gap and are usually seen in initial/medial stop positions (can't occur in final position).
    Release Burst
  26. Time between release of articulatory blockage (beg. of burst) to beginning of VF vibration for following vowel; measured in milliseconds and is indication of coordination bet/ laryngeal/articulatory systems.
    Voice Onset Time (VOT)
  27. How does VOT change as place of articulation moves backward in oral cavity?
    • Increases
    • Measured in intial stops
    • Bilabials=Shortest
    • Alveolar=Intermediate
    • Velars=Longest
  28. Negative value indicating that VFs are vibrating before articulatory release occurs.
    Prevoicing VOT Lead
  29. Onset of VF vibration follows shortly or delayed a long time after articulatory burst/release.
    VOT with Short/Long Lag
  30. Voice onset and articulatory release occur at the same time yeilding a VOT of zero.
    Simultaneous Voicing
  31. How does VOT variability in elderly speakers compare with young adults?
    Greater variability
  32. Energy in fricatives is ________ in duration than in stops.
  33. Other languages have different _______ from English.
  34. How many deciduous teeth do children have in each jaw?
  35. What is the primary muscle which makes up the lips?
    Obicularis Oris
  36. When the velum acts as a valve, it touches ______ ________ ________.
    Posterior Pharyngeal Wall
  37. Upcoming sound influences preceding sound.
    Backward Coarticulation
  38. Preceding sound influences an ensuing sound.
    Anticipatory Coarticulation
  39. F0 ________ in speakers at the end of interrogative sentences.
  40. F0 __________ in speakers at the end of declarative sentences.
Card Set
Speech Science Test 2
Speech Science Test 2
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