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Macroforces of the Economy
- Structural transformation of the economy
- Changing Racial Composition Due to Immigration
- Aging of Society
90% of immigrants are from non-European Countries (Latin America and Asia).
New Immigration: How is the Population Shifting
The U.S. is shifting from an Anglo-White society to a society with 3 large racial minorities: African American, Latino, and Asian.
Immigration effects on California
California's white population is the minority, it's racial minorities incrasing faster than the majority population.
Aging of society
- Economic resources distributed unequally among the elderly.
- Living arrangements: nursing home residents are typically over 75, female, white, and widowed.
- Medicare makes elderly pay significantly medical costs.
Role transitions of elderly society
- Impending Death
The process by which everyone on Earth becomes increasingly interconnected economically, politically, culturally, and environmentally.
Poor Economic Conditions
- Job Insecurity
- Shrinking Middle Class
- Financial Decline
- Housing Woes
- Personal Bankruptcies
- 6 million lost jobs between 2007 - 2009
- Unemployment rate jumped from 4.6 - 9.4 %
- Those with less education and of color had higher unemployment rates
Reasons for the Shrinking Middle Class
- Stagnant or Declining Wages
- Increasing cost of new car, housing, and college education
Average inflation income for workers lower now than it was in the 1970's
- Homeowners purchased overvalued houses, assumed value would increase.
- Housing bubble burst, causing values to decline and many homes were foreclosed.
- Renters not immune - many lost their homes, became renters, driving up rent costs
Major source: inability to pay for catastrophic health care needs.
Poor Economic Conditions Resulted in...
- Increased Marital Problems
- Longer Working Hours
- Increased Debt and Layoffs
Necessity of Dual Earners
Families cannot be supported on a single salary, so both partners work. Children are being raised by their grandparents in order to help support childcare.
There is no such thing as biological race. Races are socially defined.
Results of PSID study
People often fall into poverty because of dramatic change such as the loss of a job or family break-up. Once adjustments are made to those changes, people are often able to climb back out of poverty.
Refers to group-based, structured inequalities in society, such as class, race and gender.
Hierarchies within Society
Class, Race, and Gender: Power relationships that structure the experiences of all families and their unequal opportunities based on social location in these structures.
5 Social Classes
Families in Poverty
Lack opportunities, use large network of kin for financial support, reduces likelihood of marriage.
Largest group, lower-level manufacturing jobs, limited education and mobility, have an hourly wage, use kin for financial support, "order-takers."
Idealized in our society, self-reliant, breadwinning father, homemaker mother, receive annual salaries rather than wages, "order-givers," health benefits, pensions, autonomous, retirement.
Not autonomous, social networking, prestigious opportunities, stay within class, isolated and insulated.
Dominate lower class, multiple households, nationally connected to institutions they control, extremely insolated and isolated, marriage and firm control over who children marry.
Income, occupation, and education are fundamental indicators of social calss. Each social class has it's own culture that it's members are expected to live in and by.
Class position rests on people's own efforts and abilities. Occupations are an important part of the class structure because they link families with resources and opportunities.
Culture of Poverty Thesis
The poor have certain characteristics that set them apart from the rest of society and that these cultural differences explain continued poverty.
Labor Force Trends: Women
- Participation has grown at a faster pace then men's in recent decades.
- Women's work is more likely part-time, part-year, or both.
Labor Force Trends: Men
Decreased participation due to structural unemployment, the redistribution of jobs, and the low-income-generating capacity of jobs.
Gendered Nature of Housework
- Family tasks = strongly gendered, regardless of wife's employment status
- Men: cars, yard, home repair, errands
- Women: cooking, cleaning, laundry, mending, childcare
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993
Requires employers of 50 or more people to provide 12 weeks of unpaid leave to any worker who has a medical emergency or needs to care for an adopted, newborn or child or a seriously ill child, spouse, or parent. It does not cover part-time workers.
Teen Employment Research Findings:
What are the effects of employment on high-school students?
The context of employment is vital in determining whether jobs are positive or negative for adolescents.
Major Reasons for Increased Participation of Women in Paid Labor
- Large-scale changes in the U.S. economy
- Families have become dependent on women's income
- Women find fulfillment in working
Now the dominant family model among workers in the labor force, approximately 70% of couples, ratio is 2:1.
an active process in which individuals manipulate their role expectations and behaviors to deal with stressful situations. Includes Split-shift, sequencing, and mommy track.
When working parents share child care, one parent takes care of the children while the other works.
Adjusting the timing of events over the life course by eliminating or postponing activities in one sphere, either work or family, until a later stage.
the employment of women in work positions that are less difficult but less prestigious, less lucrative, and limited in advancement potential. These postions do not make it easier for women to care for their families.