Biology Chapter 1

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Biology Chapter 1
2012-03-08 17:39:25
biology chapter one

Biology chapter 1
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  1. Atom
    Smallest unit of an element that still retains the element's properties. Electrons, protons, and neutrons are its building blocks. This hydrogen atom's electron zips around a proton in a spherical volume of space.
  2. Molecule
    Two or more joined atoms of the same or different elements. The "molecules of life" are complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA. In today's world, only living cells make them.
  3. Cell
    Smallest unit that can live and reproduce on its own or as part of a multicellular organism. It has an outer membrane, DNA, and other components.
  4. Tissue
    Organized cells that substances that interact in a specialized activity. Many cells (white) made this bone tissue from their own secretions.
  5. Organ
    Two or more tissues interacting in some task. A parrotfish eye, for example, is a sensory organ used in vision.
  6. Organ System
    Organs interacting physically, chemically, or both in some task. Parrotfish skin is an organ system with tissue layers, organs such as glands, and other parts.
  7. Multicelled organism
    Individual made of different types of cells. Cells of most organisms including this Red Sea parrotfish, are organized as tissues, organs, and organ systems.
  8. Population
    Group of single celled or multicelled individuals of the same species occupying a specified area.This is a fish population in the Red Sea.
  9. Community
    Alll populations of all species occupying a specified area. This is part of a coral reef in the Gulf of Aqaba at the northern end of the Red Sea.
  10. Ecosystem
    A community that is interacting with its physical environment. It has inputs and outputs of energy and materials. Reef ecosystems flourish in warm, clear seawater throughout the Middle East.
  11. Biosphere
    All regions of the Earth's waters, crust, and atmosphere that hold organisms. In the vast universe, Earth is a rare planet. Without its abundance of free-flowing water, there would be no life.
  12. Metabolism
    A cell acquires and uses energy to maintain itself, grow, and make more cells. Using the metabolism a living cell has ways to obtain and convert energy from its surroundings.
  13. Producers
    Are plants and other organisms that make their own food from simple raw materials.
  14. Consumers
    All other organisms. Which cannot make their own food; must eat other organisms.
  15. Homeostasis
    Organisms keep their internal operating conditions within a range that their cells can tolerate. This state, called homeostasis is a defining feature of life.
  16. Receptors
    Are structures that detect stimuli (singular, stimulus).
  17. Stimulus
    Is a specific kind of energy, such as sunlight energy, chemical energy (as when a substance becomes more concentrated outside a cell than on the inside,) or the mechanical energy of a bite.
  18. Genus
    is one or more species grouped on the basis of a number of unique shared traits.
  19. Archaea & Bacteria
    are single cells, and all are prokaryotic, meaning they do not contain a nucleus (a membrane -enclosed sac that keeps DNA seperated from the rest of the cell's interior.)
  20. Plants
    are multicelled, photosynthetic producers. They make their own food by using simple raw materials and sunlight as an energy source.
  21. Fungi
    such as the mushrooms sold in grocery stores, are multicelled consumers with a distinctive way of feeding.
  22. Animals
    Are multicelled consumers that ingest the tissues of other organisms. Differerent animals are herbivores (grazers), carnivores (meat eaters), scavengers, and parasites. All develop by a series of embryonic stages, and all actively move about during their life.
  23. Mutations
    Changes in DNA. Variation in most traits arises through this.
  24. Evolution
    Simply means heritable change in a line of descent. Mutations, the source of new traits, provide the variation that serves as the raw material for evolution.
  25. Natural Selection
    A microevolutionary process; differences in survival and reproduction among individuals of a population that differ in the detaiils of their heritable traits.
  26. Hypothesis
    A proposal that explains the cause of something that is observable, or that makes oa generalization about it.
  27. Prediction
    A statement of what you sohould find in the natural world if you were to go out looking for it.
  28. Test
    Making observations, conducting an experiment, or formulating a model.
  29. Model
    Are theoretical, detailed descriptions of partially-understood processes.
  30. Scientific Theory
    When a hypothesis meets the criteria. A rigorously tested, long standing concept used to interpret a broad range of observations about some aspect of nature. Always open to revision.
  31. Variable
    Is a feature of an object or event that may differ over time or among the representatives of that object or event.
  32. Control Group
    Which is a standard for comparison with one or more experimental groups.
  33. Experimental Groups
    Have the same thing as the control group but with an added variable
  34. Mimicry
    is a case of looking like something else and confusing predators (or prey)
  35. Sampling Error
    Difference between a statistical result derived from surveying a complete set of events or individuals, and result derived from surveying a subset of it.