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the sum of all chemical reaction within a living organism
- enzyme-regulated chemical reactions that release energy.
- involves the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones.
- catabolic or degradative
- generally hydrolytic reaction (reactions which use water and which chemical bonds are broken).
- they are exergonic (produce more energy than they consume)
- ex: occurs when cells break down sugars into carbon dioxide and water.
- enzyme-regulated energy-requiring reactions
- the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones
- called anabolic or biosynthetic reactions
- Processes often involve dehydration synthesis reactions
- are endergonic (consume more energy than they produce