Bio Sat2 ch5

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Bio Sat2 ch5
2012-03-05 19:47:43
Bio Sat ch5

Mitosis and Meiosis
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  1. Mitosis
    • The general process for cell replication.
    • Prophase
    • metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • telophase
  2. Interphase
    • The cell is replicating chromosomes but not actively dividing.
    • Pre-mitosis/meiosis
  3. Centromere
    • Holds together 2 pieces of DNA in a chromosome.
    • Holds together 2 chromatids.
  4. Chromosome
    • As a single strand the whole thing is a chromosome.
    • Two former chromosomes, then form a chromosome, and they are referred to as chromatids.
    • A chromosome is always the whole thing.
  5. Chromatid
    • The strands of a chromosome.
    • There are 2 in a chromosome.
  6. Prophase
    • The Centrioles move away from each other.
    • The mitotic spindle is formed.
    • The nuclear membrane fades.
  7. Mitotic spindle
    • The fibers formed by the centrioles.
    • They attach to the centromeres and pull the chromosomes apart.
  8. Metaphase
    The chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate.
  9. Metaphase plate
    The equator of the cell.
  10. Anaphase
    • The centromere is split in half and the chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles.
    • The cell begins to split at the cleavage furrow.
  11. Telophase
    • The nuclear membranes form in the new cells.
    • The cytoplasm divides during cytokinesis
  12. Cytokinesis
    The cytoplasm divides into 2 daughter cells.
  13. (Translation) Genes
    The portions of chromosomes that are transcribed to mRNA.
  14. Karyotype
    A layout of all the chromosomes in an organism
  15. Gametes
    • Sex cells
    • ie: sperm and ova.
  16. Somatic
    Non-sex body cells
  17. Diploid
    Cells having 2 complete sets of chromosomes
  18. Haploid
    Cells having only one set of chromosomes.
  19. Diploid number
    In humans, 46
  20. Haploid number
    In Humans, 23
  21. Meiosis
    The formation of gametes.
  22. Zygote
    The ovum fertilized by the sperm
  23. Synapsis
    The chromosomes pairing up with their homologous partner in meisos, Prophase I.
  24. Prophase I
    • Thw Homologous pairs match up (Synapsis).
    • Tetrad is formed.
    • Crossing over happens.
  25. Tetrad
    The four chromatids in a homologous pair.
  26. Crossing over
    Segments of homologous chromomsomes are exchanged.
  27. Metaphase I
    The homologous paris line up
  28. Anaphase I
    The Homologous pairs are separated.
  29. Telophase I
    • The cells go through cytokinesis.
    • The nuclear membranes reform.
    • The new cells are considered haploid.
  30. Meiosis II
    The same as mitosis, but results in four haploid cells.
  31. Gametogenesis
    The formation of sperm and ova.
  32. Spermatogenesis
    • The formation of sperm.
    • 4 haploid sperm are formed.
  33. Spermatogonium
    The diploid cell at the beginning of spermatogenesis.
  34. Seminiferous tubules
    The tubles on the testes where the Spermatagonium live.
  35. oogenesis
    • The formation of an ovum.
    • One ovum is formed.
  36. Ova/Ovum
    The egg, to be fertilized by sperm.
  37. Primary oocyte
    The diploid cell at the beginning of oogenesis.
  38. Polar bodies
    • Two polar bodies are formed from oogenesis.
    • they receive no cytoplasm or organelles, and then dicintegrate.