Comprehensive Review

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jen.shaleen
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139931
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Comprehensive Review
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2012-09-23 00:23:57
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Veterinary Technician
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General review questions to study for vet tech certification
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  1. What is the proper way to handle vaccines?
    Refrigerate, do not combine unless manufactured to be mixed together.
  2. What are 2 things that can interfere with vaccination?
    Maternal interference and immune suppression
  3. Antigen
    A substance (usually a protein) foreign to the body.
  4. Antibody
    Immunoglobulins. B lymphocytes encounter antigen and are activated, some produce antibodies and others become memory cells.
  5. IgG
    Most abundant antibodies. Found in fluids and tissues.
  6. IgA
    Antibody. Found in mm and mammary glands.
  7. IgM
    Antibody. First responder. Found in bodily fluids.
  8. IgE
    Antibody. Allergic reactions.
  9. Modified Live Vaccines
    A live virus or bacteria that replicates within the animal and stimulates the humoral immune response. There are several types such as attenuated, fully virulent, heterologous, and recombinant.
  10. Killed Vaccines
    Dead pathogen or pieces that stimulate an immune response. Often mixed with adjuvant (irritant) which helps attract the attention of the immune system.
  11. DHPP or DA2PP
    • Distemper, Hepatitis or adenovirus, Parvovirus, Parainfluenza.
    • +/- coronavirus and leptospirosis
  12. DHPP or DA2PP timing
    1st vaccine at 6-8 weeks. Booster every 3-4 weeks until 16 weeks old. Then every 1-3 years.
  13. Canine Distemper
    Highly contagious. Transmission occurs by aerosol, body fluids, direct contact, oral ingestion.

    Susceptible to heat and UV light. Remains viable in cold conditions.

    Wild animals are susceptible and can act as a reservoir.

    Resembles measles antigenically.
  14. Sign of Canine Distemper
    • Transient fever
    • Leukopenia
    • Respiratory signs: conjunctivitis, nasal d/c, cough
    • GI signs: anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration
    • Secondary bacterial infections
    • Skin rash
    • Hyperkeratotic (hard) foot pads
    • Encephalitis: seizures, ataxia, blindness
  15. Treatment of Canine Distemper
    • Guarded prognosis
    • Antibiotics to combat secondary infections
    • IV fluids
    • Nutrition
  16. Canine Distemper Vaccine
    • Modified Live
    • Rare to see disease where vaccination is common
  17. Infectious Canine Hepatitis
    • Canine Adenovirus Type 1 and 2
    • Type 1 causes the disease and type 2 is used in the vaccine
    • Oronasal route of entry
    • Passed in all body secretions
    • Infects kidney, liver and eyes
  18. Signs of Canine Infectious Hepatitis
    • Fever
    • Lethargy
    • Leukopenia
    • Liver disease/failure
    • Bleeding problems
  19. Treatment of Canine Infectious Hepatitis
    • Treatment is supportive and symptomatic
    • Vaccine: MLV CAV-2. Safe and effective.
    • Disease is rare where vaccination is common.
  20. Leptospirosis
    • Spirochete: Long spiral shaped bacteria.
    • Many different strains
    • ZOONOTIC!
    • Spread via urine in water, soil and feed
    • Wildlife and farm animals are more at risk
  21. Signs of Leptospirosis
    • Fever
    • Anorexia
    • Vomiting
    • Hematuria and petechial hemorrhages
    • Liver and kidney failure
  22. Leptospirosis Treatment
    • Antibiotics
    • Supprotive care
  23. Leptospirosis Vaccine
    • Provides a variable duration of protection
    • Does not protect against all types
    • High incidence of vaccine reactions
    • Necessity depends on environment and lifestyle
  24. Parvo Virus
    • Common viral disease in dogs
    • Discovered in 1978 and has mutated several times since
    • Extremely resistant: can live in the environment for several years. Bleach and some disinfectants will kill it.
    • Trasmitted via feces and fomites
  25. Parvo Signs
    • Lethargy
    • +/- fever
    • Leukopenia
    • Severe bloody diarrhea with a distinct smell
    • Vomiting, anorexia and dehydration
  26. Diagnosis of Parvo Virus
    • Leukopenia is supportive if the diagnosis
    • ELISA test
    • Electron microscope testing
  27. Treatment of Parvo
    • Fluids, electrolytes, and dextrose
    • Antibiotics to combat secondary bacterial infections
    • Antiemetics
    • Plasma to maintian BP and replace proteins lost in diarrhea
    • Parental nutrition
  28. Parvo Vaccine
    • Safe and effective but not 100%
    • Part of distemper vaccine
    • Puppies are more susceptable than adult dogs
    • Higher incidence in Rottweilers and Dobermans
  29. Coronavirus
    • Viral disease
    • Causes mild gastroenteritis
    • Not as serious as Parvo
    • Supportive care only
    • Vaccine can be a part of distemper combo
  30. Core Canine Vaccines
    • Distemper
    • Adenovirus 2 (hepatitis)
    • Parainfluenza
    • Parvovirus
  31. Canine Add-on Vaccines
    • Coronavirus
    • Leptospirosis
  32. Infectious Tracheobronchitis
    • Kennel Cough
    • Can range from self-limiting to severe pneumonia
    • Caused by parainfluenza virus or boredetella bacteria
  33. Canine Parainfluenza
    • Virus
    • part of canine cough complex
    • transmitted via aerosol
    • Signs: spasmatic cough, +/- fever
    • Can recover on their own
    • Treatment: cough suppressant, +/- antibiotics
    • Effective vaccine
  34. Bordetella bronchiseptica
    • Bacterium
    • part of canine cough complex
  35. Bordetella Transmission
    • Direct contact
    • Aerosol
    • Fomites and human hands
    • Premesis
  36. Bordetella Signs
    • Dry, harsh cough
    • Retching and gagging
    • +/- fever

    Diagnosis is based on exposure history and exam findings.
  37. Bordetella Treatment
    • Antibiotics
    • Rest and no dog contact
    • +/- cough suppressants
  38. Bordetella Vaccine
    • Bordetella bronchiseptica Parainfluenza-3
    • Intranasal
    • Duration is 6 months or 1 year
    • SQ requires 3 week booster
  39. Borellia burgdorferi
    • Lyme disease
    • Spirochete bacteria
    • Vector: Ixodes (deer tick)
  40. Signs of Lyme Disease
    • Symptoms are caused by the immune response to bacteria.
    • Early: fever, painful and swollen joints
    • If Untreated: kidney, heart, brain disease
  41. Lyme Disease Diagnosis
    • ELISA antibody test
    • Idexx 3 DX
  42. Lyme Disease Treatment
    • Antibiotics: (doxy) for 4 weeks
    • Improvement is usually seen within 3 days of therapy
    • Anti-inflammatory meds for pain
  43. Lyme Disease Vaccine
    • As early as 12 weeks
    • Booster in 3-4 weeks
    • Annual boosters
  44. Rabies
    • Endemic zoonotic disease
    • Viral disease of mammals
    • Fatal
    • Mammals differ in susceptibility: dogs, cats and farm animals show predictable illness. Skunks and bats can carry for long periods of time, rodents do not get or transmit rabies.
  45. Signs of Rabies
    • Change in behavior: furious and dumb rabies
    • Paralysis: muscles involved in swallowing which leads to excessive salivation.
    • Death: Once the disease reaches peripheral nerves and symptoms appear it is fatal.
  46. Diagnosis of Rabies
    • IFA test: exam of the brain for virus particles
    • Brain must be intact
    • Brain can not be decomposed
    • Do not freeze
  47. Rabies Vaccine
    • First given at 12-16 weeks
    • Booster in one year and give every 1-3 years
    • Depends on the vaccine used and local laws
  48. FVRCP
    • Combined Vaccine
    • Panleukopenia, Calicivirus, Herpesvirus

    • First vaccine given 6-8 weeks
    • Booster every 3-4 weeks until 12 weeks old
    • Booster every 1-3 years

    Combo Add-ons: Chlamydia
  49. Panleukopenia
    • "Feline Distemper"
    • A parvovirus
    • Shed in urine, feces, nasal secretions and blood (via fleas)
    • Stable - persistant in the environment
  50. Panleukopenia Signs
    • Fever
    • Anorexia
    • Leukopenia
    • Depression
    • Vomiting/diarrhea
    • Dehydration
    • In utero infection causes cerebellar hypoplasia in kittens - Dr. Wagners cats. This can be caused by modified live virus vaccine or disease due to exposure of pregnant queen
  51. Panleukopenia
    • 50-90% mortality
    • Destroys WBCs
    • Attacks gut mucosa
    • Effects developing cerebellum and retina
  52. Panleukopenia Treatment
    • Supportive
    • IV fluids
    • Symptomatic
  53. Panleukopenia Vaccine
    • Safe and effective
    • Part of FVRCP combo
    • Do not vaccinate pregnant queens
  54. Feline Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)
    • Highly contageous disease
    • Caused by: herpes virus, calicivirus, bordetella, chlamydia
    • Transmission via aerosol, direct contact, fomites
    • Cats can become carriers and signs can reoccur
  55. Feline URI signs
    • Fever
    • Sneezing
    • Ocular and nasal discharge
    • Conjunctivitis
    • Anorexia
    • Cough (rare)
  56. Feline URI Treatment
    • Supportive
    • Keep face and nostrils clean
    • Fluids
    • Nutrition
    • Antibiotics (for secondary bacterial infections)
    • Oral Lysine (Interferes with virus replication)
    • +/- antivirals/Interferon for extreme cases
  57. Feline Rhinotracheitis
    A herpes virus
  58. Feline Calicivirus
    Spots on tongue
  59. Chlamydia psittaci (or Chlamydia felis) "Pneumonitis"
    • Bacterial
    • Infects conjunctiva - scrapings my show inclusion bodies
    • May start unilateral - become bilateral
    • Usually mild unless infections includes URI viruses
  60. Panleukopenia/URI Combo Vaccination Schedule
    • Core: panleukopenia, rhinotracheitis, and calicivirus
    • Kittens: 8-12-16 weeks
    • Booster at 1-3 year intervals
  61. Feline Leukemia Virus - FeLV
    • Transmission: In utero, direct contact with body fluids
    • It is possible for cats to clear the infections after initial exposure. Re-test in 8 weeks
    • Easily killed with disinfectants and drying
  62. Feline Leukemia - 3 types
    • Immunosuppression: Unable to fight off disease, immunosuppressed kittens
    • Neoplastic Disease: Solid tumors of kidney, gut, lymph nodes, etc. Cancer of blood cells (leukemia)
    • Anemia
  63. FeLV Diagnosis
    • ELISA
    • IFA on blood or bone marrow smears (immuno-flourescent antibody)
  64. FeLV Therapy
    • Usually not successful
    • Treat secondary infections
    • Chemotherapy for cancers
  65. FeLV vaccination schedule
    • Test first
    • Vaccinate in the distal left hind leg - can cause a sarcoma
    • Vaccinate at-risk cats - outside
    • Kittens and naive adults: first vaccination at 9 weeks or later
    • Booster 3-4 weeks later
    • Booster annually
  66. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus - FIV
    • Similar to HIV
    • Immunosuppression leads to cancers, infections like FeLV
    • Primarily spread through saliva and infected bite wounds
    • No specific treatment
    • If complications are controlled can can live for years
  67. FIV test and vaccine
    • Test for FIV is usually combined with FeLV (Idexx snap test)
    • Vaccine for FIV is available but efficacy is questioned
    • Vaccine with cause positive FIV test
  68. Feline Infectious Peritonitis
    • Caused by a coronavirus
    • Suspected to be froma mutation of a mild enteric coronavirus
    • Fatal once symptomatic
    • Greatest incidences is seen in catteries
    • More common in young cats
  69. FIP - 2 forms
    • Dry
    • Wet
  70. FIP Dry
    • Inflammatory masses (granulations) seen on any organ
    • Signs may be based on the organ involved
    • Diagnosed by necropsy
    • More chronic than wet form
  71. FIP Wet (effusive)
    Often an acute accumulation of a proteinaceous, yellow to amber fluid in the thorax and/or abdomen
  72. FIP Signs
    • Fever
    • Anorexia
    • Lethargy
    • Weight Loss
    • Lymphopenia

    Signs are often related to form (wet or dry) and organ involved
  73. FIP Diagnosis
    • Difficult in the living cat
    • Cross reacts with other corona viruses so titer results inconclusive unless extremely high
    • Analysis of abdominal or thoracic fluid (cytology)
    • Biopsy/hisopath
    • Other compatible signs and lab findings: total protein >7.8mg/dl, increased globulin, lymphopenia
    • Diagnosis often made by necropsy
  74. FIP Treatment
    • Can try steroids (pred) and supportive care (fluids and nutrition) in select cases.
    • May get short-term remission
  75. FIP Vaccine
    • Intranasal modified live virus
    • Efficacy questioned
    • Duration of immunity short
    • FIP incidence low except in catteries
  76. Feline Rabies Vaccine
    • Vaccinate SQ in RR leg
    • First vaccine given 12-16 weeks of age
    • Booster in 1 year
    • Booster every 1-3 years depending on vaccine and local laws
  77. Healthy Liver Functions
    • Stores and releases glucose
    • Produces albumin
    • Processes bilirubin
    • Recycles bile acids
  78. What is a fomite?
    Inanimate object that can transfer infectious material
  79. What is a nosocomial infection?
    Infections contracted in a hospital or clinic setting
  80. What is an iatrogenic infection?
    An infection caused by an invasive procedure
  81. What is the normal temperature range in a dog or cat?
    100-102.5 F
  82. What is the normal respiratory range in a dog and cat?
    10-30 rpm
  83. What is the normal pulse range in a dog?
    70-130 bpm
  84. What is the normal pulse range in a cat?
    110-180 bpm
  85. What are the 5 locations of the lymph nodes?
    • 1. Mandibular
    • 2. Prescapular
    • 3. Popliteal
    • 4. Axillary
    • 5. Inguinal
  86. Ectropion
    Outward rolling of eyelid
  87. Entropion
    Inward rolling of eyelid
  88. Dyspnea
    Difficulty breathing
  89. Tachycardia
    Elevated heart rate
  90. Bradycardia
    Slow heart rate
  91. Gestation in Dogs
    Approximately 63 days
  92. Estrus cycle in cats
    Seasonally polyestrus - photoperiod related, can go into heat every 2 weeks.
  93. Gestation period in cats
    63 days
  94. prn
    as needed
  95. Dog dentition
    2(I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 4/4, M 2/3) = 42
  96. Cat dentition
    2(I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 3/2, M 1/1) = 30
  97. 2 ingredients necessary for a cat
    Taurine and arachidonic acid
  98. 6 basic components of food
    • 1. Water
    • 2. Fats
    • 3. Protein
    • 4. Carbohydrates
    • 5. Ash and minerals
    • 6. Vitamins
  99. Parenteral Nutrition
    IV nutrition
  100. PEG tube
    Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrotomy. Used for long-term therapy.
  101. Perfusion
    Volume in the IV space. Evaluated by MM color, CRT, HR, pulse quality, and rectal temp.
  102. Hydration
    Volume in the intersitium. Evaluated by MM moistness, skin tenting, etc.
  103. Hydrostatic Pressure
    Water pressure that pushes. If intravascular pressure is high fluid will move from IV space to IS space.
  104. Colloid Oncotic Pressure
    Protein pressure that pulls.
  105. Rehydration
    When fluid moves to interstitium to replenish a volume deficit.
  106. Edema
    When an excessive volume of fluid moves to the interstitium.
  107. Third-Space shift
    Quatities of water from the IV and IS space accumulating in the body cavity, Usually due to inflammation and increased vessel permeability.
  108. Signs of overhydration
    • Restlessness
    • tachycardia
    • dyspnea
    • chemosis
    • increased lung sounds
    • serous nasal discharge
  109. Isotonic fluids
    • Electrolyte concentration similar to extracellular fluid.
    • Fluid will distribute equally between all 3 fluid compartments.
  110. Hypotonic Fluids
    • Less electrolytes than extracellular fluid.
    • Fluid will move from IV space to IC and IS space.
    • Increase volume of RBCs.
  111. Hypertonic Fluids
    • Large quantities of NaCl.
    • Pulls fluid from IS to IV space.
    • Will shrink RBCs.
  112. Crystalloid Solutions
    Solutions containing varying concentrations of electrolytes, water, +/- dextrose. Results in hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic fluids. They are capable of passing through cell membranes and entering all body fluid compartments.
  113. Lactated Ringers Solution
    • Crystalloid.
    • Isotonic maintentence fluid.
    • One of the most commonly used fluids in vet med.
    • Contains less Na and Cl than replacement fluids.
    • Contains high levels of Ca++, do not use with blood products.
    • Contains lactate which is converted by the liver to bicarb.
    • Indications: general rehydration or volume expansion.
  114. Normosol-R
    • Crystalloid.
    • Isotonic solution.
    • No calcium.
    • Usefull replacement solution especially in situations where Mg is required.
  115. 0.9% NaCl
    • Crystalloid.
    • Isotonic maintentence fluid.
    • Compatible with blood products.
    • Not used in animals with heart disease or hypertension.
    • Indications: volume expansion, Addison's disease, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia.
  116. 5% Dextrose Solution
    • Crystalloid.
    • Hypotonic fluid.
    • Contains only dextrose in water.
    • Never give SQ.
    • Indications: sepsis, hypernatremia, carrier for drugs.
    • Contraindications: patients at risk for ICP, acute neurological dysfunction, hypovolemic states, at risk for third-space fluid shifts, elevated BG.
  117. Colloidal Solutions
    • Contains large molecular weight particles that are unable to cross capillary membranes and are confined to vascular spaces.
    • Prevents edema by increasing colloid oncotic pull.
    • Natural Colloids: Whole blood, Plasma, Packed RBC's.
    • Synthetic Colloids: Hetastarch, Oxyglobin.
  118. Normal pH range of blood
    7.35 - 7.45 (average is 7.4)
  119. Acidosis
    Decrease in pH
  120. Alkalosis
    Increase in pH
  121. PVC
    Premature ventricular contraction
  122. Pneumothorax
    Free air in the pleural cavity. Pressure from air in the chest makes breathing difficult.
  123. Hemothorax
    Blood in the pleural cavity.
  124. Saddle  thrombus
    Blood clot lodged at the bifurcation of abdominal aorta to iliac artery.
  125. Shock
    Can have multiple causes. Drop in blood pressure causing insufficient perfusion of blood to tissues, cellular hypoxia and death.
  126. Signs of Shock
    • Injected MM
    • Rapid CRT
    • Tachycardia
    • Increased pulse pressure
    • Tachypnea
  127. Atalectasis
    Collapse of alveoli in lungs.
  128. GDV
    Gastric Dilitation Volvulus
  129. Apex
    Most terminal portion of the tooth root.
  130. Cementum
    Bony substance covering the  roots that assist with holding the tooth in place.
  131. Crown
    Portion of the tooth above the gumline.
  132. Dentin
    Dense bone-like material underlying the enamel, makes up the bulk of the tooth.
  133. Enamel
    Outer covering of the crown. Hardest substance in the body.
  134. Gingiva
    Gum tissue.
  135. Carnassial Teeth
    Upper 4th premolar and lower 1st molar.
  136. Deciduous tooth pattern in dogs
    2(I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 3/3) = 28
  137. Deciduous tooth pattern in cats
    2(I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 3/2) = 26
  138. Anterior cross-bite
    Normal occlusion except one or more of the incisors are misaligned.
  139. Posterior cross-bite
    Maxillary premolars are ligual to the mandibular premolars or molars.
  140. Level bite
    The incisors meet. Acceptable in cats, malocclusion in dogs.
  141. Brachynathism
    Overshot jaw, the lower jaw is too short. May cause the canines and incisors to penetrate the hard palate.
  142. Prognathism
    Undershot jaw, the lower jaw is too long. Seen in brachycephalic breeds.
  143. Wry mouth
    Elongation of half of the jaw. A form of brachynathism or prognathism that affects only one side of the head.
  144. Abcess
    Accumulation of purulent material.
  145. Buccal
    Surface of the tooth toward the cheek.
  146. Calculus
    Salivary minerals and plaque that have hardened on the tooth.
  147. Labial Surface
    Surface of the tooth facing the lips.
  148. Lingual surface
    Surface of the tooth (lower) facing the tongue.
  149. Mesial surface
    Tooth surface facing toward the rostral midline.
  150. Palatal surface
    Surface of the tooth (upper) facing the hard palate.
  151. Periodontal Probe
    Used to measure gingival sulcus and gum recession.
  152. Dental explorer
    Used to detect tooth abnormalities such as tooth resorption and pulp exposure due to fractures.
  153. Dental Scaler
    Removed calculus supragingivally with pulling strokes away from the gumline. Hoe and Sickle.
  154. Dental Curette
    Removes calculus subgingivally. Used for root planing. Gracey and Universal.
  155. Dental Elevator
    Used to break down periodontal ligament for tooth extraction.

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