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What is the proper way to handle vaccines?
Refrigerate, do not combine unless manufactured to be mixed together.
What are 2 things that can interfere with vaccination?
Maternal interference and immune suppression
A substance (usually a protein) foreign to the body.
Immunoglobulins. B lymphocytes encounter antigen and are activated, some produce antibodies and others become memory cells.
Most abundant antibodies. Found in fluids and tissues.
Antibody. Found in mm and mammary glands.
Antibody. First responder. Found in bodily fluids.
Antibody. Allergic reactions.
Modified Live Vaccines
A live virus or bacteria that replicates within the animal and stimulates the humoral immune response. There are several types such as attenuated, fully virulent, heterologous, and recombinant.
Dead pathogen or pieces that stimulate an immune response. Often mixed with adjuvant (irritant) which helps attract the attention of the immune system.
DHPP or DA2PP
- Distemper, Hepatitis or adenovirus, Parvovirus, Parainfluenza.
- +/- coronavirus and leptospirosis
DHPP or DA2PP timing
1st vaccine at 6-8 weeks. Booster every 3-4 weeks until 16 weeks old. Then every 1-3 years.
Highly contagious. Transmission occurs by aerosol, body fluids, direct contact, oral ingestion.
Susceptible to heat and UV light. Remains viable in cold conditions.
Wild animals are susceptible and can act as a reservoir.
Resembles measles antigenically.
Sign of Canine Distemper
- Transient fever
- Respiratory signs: conjunctivitis, nasal d/c, cough
- GI signs: anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration
- Secondary bacterial infections
- Skin rash
- Hyperkeratotic (hard) foot pads
- Encephalitis: seizures, ataxia, blindness
Treatment of Canine Distemper
- Guarded prognosis
- Antibiotics to combat secondary infections
- IV fluids
Canine Distemper Vaccine
- Modified Live
- Rare to see disease where vaccination is common
Infectious Canine Hepatitis
- Canine Adenovirus Type 1 and 2
- Type 1 causes the disease and type 2 is used in the vaccine
- Oronasal route of entry
- Passed in all body secretions
- Infects kidney, liver and eyes
Signs of Canine Infectious Hepatitis
- Liver disease/failure
- Bleeding problems
Treatment of Canine Infectious Hepatitis
- Treatment is supportive and symptomatic
- Vaccine: MLV CAV-2. Safe and effective.
- Disease is rare where vaccination is common.
- Spirochete: Long spiral shaped bacteria.
- Many different strains
- Spread via urine in water, soil and feed
- Wildlife and farm animals are more at risk
Signs of Leptospirosis
- Hematuria and petechial hemorrhagesLiver and kidney failure
- Supprotive care
- Provides a variable duration of protection
- Does not protect against all types
- High incidence of vaccine reactions
- Necessity depends on environment and lifestyle
- Common viral disease in dogs
- Discovered in 1978 and has mutated several times since
- Extremely resistant: can live in the environment for several years. Bleach and some disinfectants will kill it.
- Trasmitted via feces and fomites
- +/- fever
- Severe bloody diarrhea with a distinct smell
- Vomiting, anorexia and dehydration
Diagnosis of Parvo Virus
- Leukopenia is supportive if the diagnosis
- ELISA test
- Electron microscope testing
Treatment of Parvo
- Fluids, electrolytes, and dextrose
- Antibiotics to combat secondary bacterial infections
- Plasma to maintian BP and replace proteins lost in diarrhea
- Parental nutrition
- Safe and effective but not 100%
- Part of distemper vaccine
- Puppies are more susceptable than adult dogs
- Higher incidence in Rottweilers and Dobermans
- Viral disease
- Causes mild gastroenteritis
- Not as serious as Parvo
- Supportive care only
- Vaccine can be a part of distemper combo
Core Canine Vaccines
- Adenovirus 2 (hepatitis)
- Kennel Cough
- Can range from self-limiting to severe pneumonia
- Caused by parainfluenza virus or boredetella bacteria
- part of canine cough complex
- transmitted via aerosol
- Signs: spasmatic cough, +/- fever
- Can recover on their own
- Treatment: cough suppressant, +/- antibiotics
- Effective vaccine
- part of canine cough complex
- Direct contact
- Fomites and human hands
- Dry, harsh cough
- Retching and gagging
- +/- fever
Diagnosis is based on exposure history and exam findings.
- Rest and no dog contact
- +/- cough suppressants
- Bordetella bronchiseptica Parainfluenza-3
- Duration is 6 months or 1 year
- SQ requires 3 week booster
- Lyme disease
- Spirochete bacteria
- Vector: Ixodes (deer tick)
Signs of Lyme Disease
- Symptoms are caused by the immune response to bacteria.
- Early: fever, painful and swollen joints
- If Untreated: kidney, heart, brain disease
Lyme Disease Diagnosis
- ELISA antibody test
- Idexx 3 DX
Lyme Disease Treatment
- Antibiotics: (doxy) for 4 weeks
- Improvement is usually seen within 3 days of therapy
- Anti-inflammatory meds for pain
Lyme Disease Vaccine
- As early as 12 weeks
- Booster in 3-4 weeks
- Annual boosters
- Endemic zoonotic disease
- Viral disease of mammals
- Mammals differ in susceptibility: dogs, cats and farm animals show predictable illness. Skunks and bats can carry for long periods of time, rodents do not get or transmit rabies.
Signs of Rabies
- Change in behavior: furious and dumb rabies
- Paralysis: muscles involved in swallowing which leads to excessive salivation.
- Death: Once the disease reaches peripheral nerves and symptoms appear it is fatal.
Diagnosis of Rabies
- IFA test: exam of the brain for virus particles
- Brain must be intact
- Brain can not be decomposed
- Do not freeze
- First given at 12-16 weeks
- Booster in one year and give every 1-3 years
- Depends on the vaccine used and local laws
- Combined Vaccine
- Panleukopenia, Calicivirus, Herpesvirus
- First vaccine given 6-8 weeks
- Booster every 3-4 weeks until 12 weeks old
- Booster every 1-3 years
Combo Add-ons: Chlamydia
- "Feline Distemper"
- A parvovirus
- Shed in urine, feces, nasal secretions and blood (via fleas)
- Stable - persistant in the environment
- In utero infection causes cerebellar hypoplasia in kittens - Dr. Wagners cats. This can be caused by modified live virus vaccine or disease due to exposure of pregnant queen
- 50-90% mortality
- Destroys WBCs
- Attacks gut mucosa
- Effects developing cerebellum and retina
- IV fluids
- Safe and effective
- Part of FVRCP combo
- Do not vaccinate pregnant queens
Feline Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)
- Highly contageous disease
- Caused by: herpes virus, calicivirus, bordetella, chlamydia
- Transmission via aerosol, direct contact, fomites
- Cats can become carriers and signs can reoccur
Feline URI signs
- Ocular and nasal discharge
- Cough (rare)
Feline URI Treatment
- Keep face and nostrils clean
- Antibiotics (for secondary bacterial infections)
- Oral Lysine (Interferes with virus replication)
- +/- antivirals/Interferon for extreme cases
A herpes virus
Spots on tongue
Chlamydia psittaci (or Chlamydia felis) "Pneumonitis"
- Infects conjunctiva - scrapings my show inclusion bodies
- May start unilateral - become bilateral
- Usually mild unless infections includes URI viruses
Panleukopenia/URI Combo Vaccination Schedule
- Core: panleukopenia, rhinotracheitis, and calicivirus
- Kittens: 8-12-16 weeks
- Booster at 1-3 year intervals
Feline Leukemia Virus - FeLV
- Transmission: In utero, direct contact with body fluids
- It is possible for cats to clear the infections after initial exposure. Re-test in 8 weeks
- Easily killed with disinfectants and drying
Feline Leukemia - 3 types
- Immunosuppression: Unable to fight off disease, immunosuppressed kittens
- Neoplastic Disease: Solid tumors of kidney, gut, lymph nodes, etc. Cancer of blood cells (leukemia)
- IFA on blood or bone marrow smears (immuno-flourescent antibody)
- Usually not successful
- Treat secondary infections
- Chemotherapy for cancers
FeLV vaccination schedule
- Test first
- Vaccinate in the distal left hind leg - can cause a sarcoma
- Vaccinate at-risk cats - outside
- Kittens and naive adults: first vaccination at 9 weeks or later
- Booster 3-4 weeks later
- Booster annually
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus - FIV
- Similar to HIV
- Immunosuppression leads to cancers, infections like FeLV
- Primarily spread through saliva and infected bite wounds
- No specific treatment
- If complications are controlled can can live for years
FIV test and vaccine
- Test for FIV is usually combined with FeLV (Idexx snap test)
- Vaccine for FIV is available but efficacy is questioned
- Vaccine with cause positive FIV test
Feline Infectious Peritonitis
- Caused by a coronavirus
- Suspected to be froma mutation of a mild enteric coronavirus
- Fatal once symptomatic
- Greatest incidences is seen in catteries
- More common in young cats
- Inflammatory masses (granulations) seen on any organ
- Signs may be based on the organ involved
- Diagnosed by necropsy
- More chronic than wet form
FIP Wet (effusive)
Often an acute accumulation of a proteinaceous, yellow to amber fluid in the thorax and/or abdomen
- Weight Loss
Signs are often related to form (wet or dry) and organ involved
- Difficult in the living cat
- Cross reacts with other corona viruses so titer results inconclusive unless extremely high
- Analysis of abdominal or thoracic fluid (cytology)
- Other compatible signs and lab findings: total protein >7.8mg/dl, increased globulin, lymphopenia
- Diagnosis often made by necropsy
- Can try steroids (pred) and supportive care (fluids and nutrition) in select cases.
- May get short-term remission
- Intranasal modified live virus
- Efficacy questioned
- Duration of immunity short
- FIP incidence low except in catteries
Feline Rabies Vaccine
- Vaccinate SQ in RR leg
- First vaccine given 12-16 weeks of age
- Booster in 1 year
- Booster every 1-3 years depending on vaccine and local laws
Healthy Liver Functions
- Stores and releases glucose
- Produces albumin
- Processes bilirubin
- Recycles bile acids
What is a fomite?
Inanimate object that can transfer infectious material
What is a nosocomial infection?
Infections contracted in a hospital or clinic setting
What is an iatrogenic infection?
An infection caused by an invasive procedure
What is the normal temperature range in a dog or cat?
What is the normal respiratory range in a dog and cat?
What is the normal pulse range in a dog?
What is the normal pulse range in a cat?
What are the 5 locations of the lymph nodes?
- 1. Mandibular
- 2. Prescapular
- 3. Popliteal
- 4. Axillary
- 5. Inguinal
Outward rolling of eyelid
Inward rolling of eyelid
Elevated heart rate
Slow heart rate
Gestation in Dogs
Approximately 63 days
Estrus cycle in cats
Seasonally polyestrus - photoperiod related, can go into heat every 2 weeks.
Gestation period in cats
2(I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 4/4, M 2/3) = 42
2(I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 3/2, M 1/1) = 30
2 ingredients necessary for a cat
Taurine and arachidonic acid
6 basic components of food
- 1. Water
- 2. Fats
- 3. Protein
- 4. Carbohydrates
- 5. Ash and minerals
- 6. Vitamins
Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrotomy. Used for long-term therapy.
Volume in the IV space. Evaluated by MM color, CRT, HR, pulse quality, and rectal temp.
Volume in the intersitium. Evaluated by MM moistness, skin tenting, etc.
Water pressure that pushes. If intravascular pressure is high fluid will move from IV space to IS space.
Colloid Oncotic Pressure
Protein pressure that pulls.
When fluid moves to interstitium to replenish a volume deficit.
When an excessive volume of fluid moves to the interstitium.
Quatities of water from the IV and IS space accumulating in the body cavity, Usually due to inflammation and increased vessel permeability.
Signs of overhydration
- increased lung sounds
- serous nasal discharge
- Electrolyte concentration similar to extracellular fluid.
- Fluid will distribute equally between all 3 fluid compartments.
- Less electrolytes than extracellular fluid.
- Fluid will move from IV space to IC and IS space.
- Increase volume of RBCs.
- Large quantities of NaCl.
- Pulls fluid from IS to IV space.
- Will shrink RBCs.
Solutions containing varying concentrations of electrolytes, water, +/- dextrose. Results in hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic fluids. They are capable of passing through cell membranes and entering all body fluid compartments.
Lactated Ringers Solution
- Isotonic maintentence fluid.
- One of the most commonly used fluids in vet med.
- Contains less Na and Cl than replacement fluids.
- Contains high levels of Ca++, do not use with blood products.
- Contains lactate which is converted by the liver to bicarb.
- Indications: general rehydration or volume expansion.
- Isotonic solution.
- No calcium.
- Usefull replacement solution especially in situations where Mg is required.
- Isotonic maintentence fluid.
- Compatible with blood products.
- Not used in animals with heart disease or hypertension.
- Indications: volume expansion, Addison's disease, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia.
5% Dextrose Solution
- Hypotonic fluid.
- Contains only dextrose in water.
- Never give SQ.
- Indications: sepsis, hypernatremia, carrier for drugs.
- Contraindications: patients at risk for ICP, acute neurological dysfunction, hypovolemic states, at risk for third-space fluid shifts, elevated BG.
- Contains large molecular weight particles that are unable to cross capillary membranes and are confined to vascular spaces.
- Prevents edema by increasing colloid oncotic pull.
- Natural Colloids: Whole blood, Plasma, Packed RBC's.
- Synthetic Colloids: Hetastarch, Oxyglobin.
Normal pH range of blood
7.35 - 7.45 (average is 7.4)
Premature ventricular contraction
Free air in the pleural cavity. Pressure from air in the chest makes breathing difficult.
Blood in the pleural cavity.
Blood clot lodged at the bifurcation of abdominal aorta to iliac artery.
Can have multiple causes. Drop in blood pressure causing insufficient perfusion of blood to tissues, cellular hypoxia and death.
Signs of Shock
- Injected MM
- Rapid CRT
- Increased pulse pressure
Collapse of alveoli in lungs.
Gastric Dilitation Volvulus
Most terminal portion of the tooth root.
Bony substance covering the roots that assist with holding the tooth in place.
Portion of the tooth above the gumline.
Dense bone-like material underlying the enamel, makes up the bulk of the tooth.
Outer covering of the crown. Hardest substance in the body.
Upper 4th premolar and lower 1st molar.
Deciduous tooth pattern in dogs
2(I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 3/3) = 28
Deciduous tooth pattern in cats
2(I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 3/2) = 26
Normal occlusion except one or more of the incisors are misaligned.
Maxillary premolars are ligual to the mandibular premolars or molars.
The incisors meet. Acceptable in cats, malocclusion in dogs.
Overshot jaw, the lower jaw is too short. May cause the canines and incisors to penetrate the hard palate.
Undershot jaw, the lower jaw is too long. Seen in brachycephalic breeds.
Elongation of half of the jaw. A form of brachynathism or prognathism that affects only one side of the head.
Accumulation of purulent material.
Surface of the tooth toward the cheek.
Salivary minerals and plaque that have hardened on the tooth.
Surface of the tooth facing the lips.
Surface of the tooth (lower) facing the tongue.
Tooth surface facing toward the rostral midline.
Surface of the tooth (upper) facing the hard palate.
Used to measure gingival sulcus and gum recession.
Used to detect tooth abnormalities such as tooth resorption and pulp exposure due to fractures.
Removed calculus supragingivally with pulling strokes away from the gumline. Hoe and Sickle.
Removes calculus subgingivally. Used for root planing. Gracey and Universal.
Used to break down periodontal ligament for tooth extraction.