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is organizational behavior?
The study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations.
disciplines has it evolved from?
- Psychology, Sociology, Political Science, Anthropology, Economics,
- Communications, Information Systems, and Marketing (creativity and decision
What are the various perspectives of organizational effectiveness?
Open Systems Perspective, Organizational Learning Perspective, High-Performance Work Practices (HPWP) Perspective, Stakeholder Perspective
What does it mean to look at an organization from an “open systems perspective?"
This views organizations as complex organisms that “live” within an external environment.
What does it mean to look at an organization from a “high performance work practices
- Effective organizations incorporate several workplace practices that
- leverage the potential of human capital.
- This perspective is based on 3 propositions:
- i. Employees are an important
- source of competitive advantage
- ii. The value of this human
- capital can be increased through the presence of specific organizational
- iii. Most HPWP experts state
- that these organizational practices must be bundled together to maximize their
What does it mean to look at an organization from a “stakeholder perspective?”
- Individuals, organizations, or other entities who affect, or are affected by, the organization’s objectives and actions. (Companies must take
- into account how their actions affect others). Recognizes that stakeholder relations are dynamic; they can be negotiated and managed, not just taken as a fixed condition.
What are some behavior trends in Organizational
- Task Performance, Organizational
- Citizenship, Counterproductive Work Behaviors, joining and staying with the
- Organization, and Maintaining Work Attendance.
What is corporate social responsibility (CSR)?
- Organizational activities intended to benefit
- society and the environment beyond the firm’s immediate financial interests or legal obligations.
What are the anchors of organizational
behavior? Be sure that you understand each of these anchors.
- a. Multidisciplinary anchor – OB should import
- knowledge from many disciplines
- b. Systematic research anchor – OB should
- study organizations using systematic research methods
- c. Contingency anchor – OB theory should
- recognize that the effects of actions often vary with the situation
- d. Multiple levels of analysis anchor –
- OB knowledge should include three levels of analysis: individual, team,
What is knowledge management?
- This is synonymous with Organizational
- Learning – A perspective that organizational effectiveness depends on the organization’s
- capacity to acquire, share, use, and store valuable knowledge.
What is intellectual capital?
- Company’s stock of knowledge,
- including human capital, structural capital and relationship capital.
How is intellectual capital expanded?
- By employee involvement, job autonomy, and
- employee competence.
What do Bernanrd Ebbers, Jeffery Skilling, Dennis Kozlowski and Andrew Fastow have in common?
All guilty of fraud. Thre are 6 reasons to be concerned about business ethics.
What is ethics?
The study of moral issues and choices.
Who are the major stakeholders of a large corporation?
Pnes that have a formal contracutal relationship with the company; employees and shareholders.
What does Archie Carrol feel are global CSR's?
Philanthropic Responsibility, ethical responsibility, legal respnsibility, and economic responsibility.
According to the textvook what are internal and external influences with respect to ethical behavior?
Internal: Ethical codes, organizational culture, organizational size, structure, perceived pressure for results, corporate strategy.
External: Political/legal, industry cutlrue, national culture, and environment
Kent Hodgson writes tehre are seven general moral principles for managers? What are they?`
Dignity of human life, autonomy, honesty, loyalty, fairness, humaneness, the common good.
Focus is placed on abstract rules before raltionships. What is true, correct and appropriate can be identified and applied to everyone.
Milton Frieman's perspective
Only people have responsibility, not organiations. Therefore, the managers of organizations should do nothingthat takes profits away from the owners of the firm.
Everyone has entitlements that let thm act in a certain way
Cultural ethical relativism
what is right or wrong, good or bad, depends on the values and attitudes of the society (culture)
3. High context
4. Low context
5. Power distance
- 1. Cultures that meet conflict straight on
- 2. Use a mix of conflict avoidance and third parties to handle conflict
- 3. Shared expeience makes things understood without needing to be said explicitly. Rules for speaking and beahving are implicit in the context.
- 4. Exhange of facts and infrmation stressed. Information is given primarily in words and meaning is expressed explicitly.
- 5. Public and private and how CEO is generally on the top floor with the largest office.
- 6. Focus is placed on absrtact rules before relationships. Whats is true, correct and appropriate can be identified and applied to everyone. Societal obligations are emphasized.
- 7. Focus is placed on relationships before abstract rules. Weight is given to changing circumstances and personal obligations.
- 8. Achievement
- 9. Nurturing
- 10. The "I" predominates over the "we". Independence is highly valued.
- 11. Individual interests are subordinate to group interests. Identity is based upon the social network. Loyalty is highly valued.
What is self-concept?
An individual's beliefs and self-evaluations
What are cognitions?
A person's knowledge, opinions, or beliefs
What is self-esteem? What are Branden's six pillars of self-esteem?
Ones overall self-evaluations.
- 1. Live conciously
- 2. Be self-accepting
- 3. Take personal responsibility
- 4. Be self-assertive
- 5. Live purposefull
- 6. Have personal integrity
What is self-efficacy? What factors/sources affect ones self-efficacy?
The belief in one's ability to do a task.
Observing others, support, and assesment of current physical state
What is self-monitoring?
The extent to which you are able to adapt your behavior to the situation
What is organizational identification?
Organizational values or beliefs become part of one's self-identity
What is personality? How is personality developed? And what are the 'Big Five' personality dimensions?
Personality is the set of distinctive traits and characteristics that can be used to compar and contrast individuals.
Personality is developed biologically, by social factors, cultural factors, and situational factors.
The 'Big Five' persoanlity dimensions are: Extraversion vs Introversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability/neuroticism, openess to experience
What is locus of control? What is the difference between an internal and external locus of control?
- Locus of control is the extent to which you believe you can control your own destiny or outcomes.
- The difference between internal/external is internal focuses on the ability of the person, while external attributes everything to fate or luck.
Whyare preferences significant?
Knowing about preferences increases awareness of both your own and others behavior.
What are the differences between introverted and extroverted?
Introvert: stimulation is from within-the inner world of thoughts and reflections.
Extrovert: stimulation is from the environment--the outer world of peopls and things.
Difference between sensing and intution
Sensing: looks at specific parts and pieces, lives in the present, likes things that are definite, measurable, starts at the beginning, takes one step at a time, and likes routines
Intuition: looks at patterns and relationships, lives toward the future anticipating what might be, likes to be inventive, jumps anywhere, leaps over steps, likes change and variety.
The book identifies seven major mental abilities associated with job success. What are they?
Verbal comprehension, word fluency, numerical, special, memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning
Do people have multple intelligences?
According to Howard Gardner, we have linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, musical intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, spacial intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, and naturalist intelligence.
What is emotial intelligence? What components (competencies) are part of emotional intelligence?
The abiilty to manage oneself and interact with others in mature and constructive ways.
Self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management
What is emotional contagion and emotional labor?
Emotional contagion is when someones mood affects your mood.
Emotional labor is when people bottle up feelings of frustration, resentment, and anger in order to put on a smile and look happy. They are masking their true feelings and emotions.
What is psychological capital?
Striving for success by developing ones self-efficacy, optimisim, hope, and resiliency
What are emotions, and how do they influence attitudes and behavior?
Physiological, behavioral, and psychological episodes experienced toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness. They lead to physiological and cognitive responses.
What are attitudes?
The cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings,and behavioral intentions toward a person, object, or event.
What is cognitive dissonance? What is emotional dissonance?
The conflict between required and true emotions
What is the relationship between job satisfaction and performance and customer satisfaction?
Job satisfaction increases customer satisfaction and profitability. This affects mood, leading to positive behaviors toward customers.
What is organizational (affective) commitment? How is that different that continuance commitment?
The employee's emotional attachment to, identifaction with, and involvment in a particular organization. An employees calculative attachment to the organization, whereby an employee is motivated to stay only because leaving would be costly
How does an employer build organizational commitment?
ustice and support, shared values, trust, organizational comprehension and employee involvment.
What is stress? What is the difference between eustress and distress? What causes stress?
An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the persons well-being.
Eustress is a necessary part of life because it activates and motivates people to achieve goals, and change their environments, and succeed in lifes challenge.
Distress is the degree of physiological, psychological, and behavioral deviation from healthy functioning.
Stress is caused by physical stressors, social/encounter stressors, internal stressors, time stressors, anticipatory stressors, and work stressors
What is the genreal adaptation syndrome?
A model of the stress experience, consisting of three stages: alarm reaction, resistance and exhaustion.
What can individuals do to cope with stress?
Use relaxtion techniques to relax musce tension (meditation, yoga, massage, excercise)
What is resilience? What factors lead to greater resilience?
The individual capability of successfully coping in the face of significant change, adversity, or risk.
Excerise, living healthy lifestyles, fin ways to weaken the stressor and seek social support rather than ignore or deny the existence, or the stressor.
What is perception?
The process of interpreting ones environment.
- Stage 1: selective attention/comprehension
- Stage 2: encoding and simplification
- Stage 3: Storage and retention
- Stage 4: retrieval and response
What causes you to pay attention to someone or something (selective attention)
Salient stimuli,menas that something stands out from its context
What is the encoding and simplification stage?
First, people possess different information in the schemata used for interpretation. Second, our moods and emotions influence our focus of attention. Third, people tend to apply recently used cognitive categories during encoding. Fourth, individual differences influence encoding.
What is Schema? What is a script?
- Schema: mental pciture of an event or object.
- Script: mental picture of an event.
What are the several managerial implications related to peception?
Specifically, how might ones perception affect things like hiring, performance appraisals, etc?
Hiring, performance appraisal, leadership, commincation and interpersonal influence, counterproductive work behaviors, physical and psychological well-being, and designing web pages.
Social cognition is the window through which we all observe, interpret, and prepare our responses to people and events, A wide variety of managerial activites, organizational processes, and quality-of-life issues are thus affected by perception.
What is social identity theory?
When we think of who we are or of other people, we think of the perosns unique characteristics and experiences (physcial appearance, personality) as well as their social identiy.
What are some commonly found perceptual errors?
Halo: a rater forms an overall impression about an object and then uses that impress to bias ratings about the object.
Leniency: a personal characteristic that leads an individual to consistently evaluate other people or objects in an extremly positive fashion.
Central tendency: the tendency to avoid all extreme judgments and rate people and objects as average or neutral
Recency effects: the tendency to remember recent information. if the recent information is negative, the person or object is evaluated negatively.
Contrast effects: the tendency to evaluate people or objects by comparing them with characterstics of recently observed people or obects.
Projection: a bias in which the perceiver assumes that his/her own thoughts, feelings, and motivation are the same for everyone else.
Primacy: the way people perceive one another during their first impressions.
What is attribution theory?
Ones behavior can be attributed either to internal factors or external factors.
What is the fundamental attribution error bias?
Ignoring environmental factors that affect behavior.
What is the self-serving bias? What is the Galatea effect?
Taking more personal responsibility for success than failure.
An individuals high self-expecations lead to high performance.
What is the Golem effect?
Loss in performance due to lower leader expectations.
What is prejudice?
- It is a perconceived opinion not based on reason or experience. It is a
- baseless and usually negative attitude toward members of a group.
What is employee engagement?
The employees emotional and cognitive motivation, self-efficacy to perform the job, perceived clarity of the organizations vision and his or her specific role in that vision, and belief that he or she has the resources to get the job done.
What is a drive? What is a need?
Hardwired characteristic of the brain that corrects deficiencies or maintains an internal equilibrium by producing emotions to energize individuals.
Goal-directed forces that people experience.
What is motivation?
The forces within a person that affects the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior.
What is the significance of Maslows theory?
This is a motivation theory of needs arragnged in a hierarchy, whereby people are motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes gratified. Starts from the bottom: physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization.
What is the four drive theory?
A motivation theory that is based on the innate drives to acquire, bond, learn, and defend that incorporates both emotions and rationaliy.
What did Daniel Pink say were the most important drives with respect to having engaged employees?
- 1. A drive for meaning in their life.
- 2. A drive for autonomu or control over their life
- 3. A drive for perosnal mastery over things that matter to them.
What is the difference between content and process theories of motivation?
Content theories deal with the question "what" motivates people. Process theores deal with "how" are people motivated.
What are X and Y theory assumptions?
How is McGregors theory related to motivation?
Theory X (extrinsic): explains the consequences of a managerial style not human nature.
Theory Y (intrinsic): people generally become committed to organizational objectives if they feel good about the organization.
They relate to the forces being either intrinsic or extrinsic that will affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of coluntary behaviors.
What is McClellands learned needs theory?
What is the difference between the needs for affiliation, power, and achievement?
Needs can be learned; more accurately, strengthened or weakened.
Affiliation: a need in which people seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and ovoid conflict and confrontation.
Power: a need in which people want to control their environment, including people and material resources, to benfit ither themselves (personalized power) or others (socialized power).
Achievement: A need in which people want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals and desire unambiguous feedback and recognition for their success.
What is the expectation theory?
What are the three levels?
A motivation theory based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes.
E-P: individual perception that his or her effort will result in a particular level of performance
P-O: perceived probability that a specific behavior or performance level will lead to a particular outcome
Outcome valences: the anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome.
What is equity theory? What is the difference between distributive justice and procedural justice?
A theory explaining how people develop perceptions of fairness in the distribution and exchange of resources.
distributive justice deals with whether we feel the outcomes we (pay, promotion, etc.) are fair relative to our contributions. Procedural ustice refers to fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of resources.
What is goal setting? What are six conditions or characteristics of an effective goal setting program?
The process of motivating employees and clarifying their role perceptions by establishing performance objectives.
Specific goals, relevant goals. challenging goals, goal commitment, goal participation, and goal feedback.
What is the expectancy theory? What is the difference between distributive justice and procedural justice? If a person
feels inequity, how does he/she tend to respond?
- A theory explaining how people develop
- perceptions of fairness in the distribution and exchange of resources.
- Feelings of inequity generate negative emotions, and as we have pointed out throughout this chapter, emotions are the engines of motivation. People respond by Reducing inputs, Increasing outcomes, Increasing the comparison of other’s inputs, Reduce the comparison of other’s outcomes,
- Changing perceptions, Changing the comparison of others, and Leave the field.
What is goal setting? What are the six conditions or characteristics of an effective goal setting program?
The process of motivating employees and clarifying their role perceptions by establishing performance objectives.
- Specific goals, Relevant goals, Challenging goals, Goal commitment, Goal
- participation, and Goal feedback.
What is a balanced score card?
A goal-setting and reward system that translated the organization’s vision and mission into specific, measurable performance goals related to financial, customer, internal, and learning/growth (i.e., human capital) processes.
What are the characteristics of effect feedback?
Ones that are specfic, relevant, timely, sufficiently frequent, and credible.
What is multisource feedback? When is 360 degree feedback most appropriate?
Information about an employee’s performance collected from a full circle of people, including subordinates, peers, supervisors, and customers.
It is particularly useful when the supervisor is unable to observe the employee’s behavior or performance throughout the year.
Is money a motivator?
According to Herzberg, money is not a motivator buta hygiene
What is gainsharing? What is skill based pay?
Gainsharing plan isa team-based reward that calculates bonuses from the work unit's cost savings and productivity improvement.
A compensation system that rewards empoyees with additional pay in exchange for formal certification of the employees mastery of skills, knowledge, and/or competencies.
What is Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory? What are hygiene factors?
Herzberg's theory states that employees are primarily motivated by growth and esteem needs, not by lower-level needs.
These are lower-order needs, and employees experience dissatisfaction when they have poor working conditions, job security, etc. They merely prevent dissatisfaction.
What is scientific management? Who was Frederick Taylor?
The practice of systematically partitioning work into its smallests elements and standardizing tasks to achieve maximum efficiency.
One of the strongest advocates of job specialization and a former industrial engineer who introduced the principles of scientific management in the early 1900's
What are core job characteristics?
These are where under the right conditions, employees are more motivated and satisfied when jobs have higher level of these characteristics: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomu, and job feedback.
How can you increase motivation through job design? What is the difference between job rotations and job enlargment?
Eliminate hygiene factors so people will focus on the context of the job.
Job rotation is the practice of moving employees from one job to another. Job enlargment is the practice of adding more tasks to an existing job and planning their own work.
What is empowerment?
A psychological concept in which people experience more self-determination, meaning, competence, and impact regarding their role in the organization.
What is self-leadership? What are elements of self-leadership?
- The process of influencing oneslef to establish the self-direction and self-motivation needed to perfom a task.
- Elements include: personal goal setting, constructive thought patterns, designing natural rewards, self-monitoring, and self-reinforcement.
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