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  1. What are the 4 nitrogen bases in pairs in DNA?
    • adenine - thymine
    • guanine - cytosine
  2. What are the 4 nitrogen base pairs in RNA?
    • adenine - U
    • guanine - cytosine
  3. What is a section of DNA or RNA?
  4. What functions as the coding to make proteins?
  5. What are 2 of DNA's activities?
    • replication (reproduction)
    • protein synthesis
  6. What are 3 steps in protein synthesis?
    • transcription (mRNA)
    • mRNA into ribosome
    • translation (ribosome translates)
  7. What 3 things happen to DNA in binary fission (replication of bacteria)?
    • double helix DNA unwinds
    • nitrogen bases pulled apart
    • DNA polymerase (enyzme) copies DNA
  8. How does DNA polymerase copy bacteria DNA?
    • attaches split nitrogen base with corresponding base found in the bacteria's cytoplasm
    • "complementary base pairing"
  9. What is the template strand?
    peice of seperated gene used to guide RNA/DNA polymerase in copying the gene
  10. What is it known as when the RNA polymerase attaches nitrogen bases from plasma to the template strand when making mRNA?
    complementary base pairing
  11. What is it known as when the DNA polymerase attaches nitrogen bases from plasma to the template strand when copying the DNA?
    complementary base pairing
  12. When does DNA replication occur?
    • binary fission for reproduction
    • protein synthesis when making proteins
  13. What are the 4 steps of DNA replication (or binary fission)?
    • 1. The DNA double helix is untwisted (by special enzymes).
    • 2. The DNA strands are separated from each other (stabilized by special proteins).
    • 3. New DNA strands are built by DNA polymerase according to complementary base pairing.
    • 4. New strands twist with matching old strands to form two complete double helices.
  14. What 2 things does protein synthesis accomplish?
    Allows cells to build enzymes and cell parts made of protein
  15. Where does transcription occur in a bacterium?
    nucleic area
  16. What are 3 steps in transcription?
    • a. The DNA double helix is untwisted at a gene.
    • b. The DNA strands are separated at the gene.
    • c. RNA Polymerase uses the DNA template strand as the pattern or guide for building mRNA by complementary base pairing.
  17. What 2 things happen in protein synthesis after transcription?
    • The newly built mRNA floats away from the gene in the DNA toward a ribosome.
    • DNA strands are rejoined and are twisted back together with each other.
  18. Where does translation occur in a bacterium?
    in ribosome in cytoplasm
  19. What is the codon?
    3 units of a strand of mRNA that tells the ribsome which tRNA to match with
  20. What 2 things are attached to tRNA?
    • anticodon
    • amino acid
  21. What are 5 steps in translation?
    • a. Two ribosomal subunits come together at the Start Codon on the mRNA. A tRNA with complementary anticodon is matched
    • b. The ribosome moves along the mRNA to the other codons and matches a complementary tRNA with it.
    • c. The next tRNA is detached from the first tRNA and attached to the amino acid beside it. The first tRNA floats away from the ribosome and attaches to another amino acid in plasma
    • d. This process continues until the ribosome reaches a Stop Codon because no tRNAs match any of the three mRNA Stop Codons
    • e. the ribosomal subunits separate from each other and from the mRNA. The amino acid previously added to the protein chain is the last amino acid to be added. Protein synthesis is complete.
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