ALU2

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140054
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ALU2
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2012-03-06 14:51:30
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anatomy lecture unit
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anatomy lecture 2 cards
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  1. 3 parts of the Nervous
    System
    1. Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord

    2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): nerves of the body

    • 3. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): has parts of the CNS and
    • PNS.
  2. What are the two parts of the CNS?
    Brain and Spinal cord
  3. What does the Autonomic Nervous System
    control and what are its 2 divisions?
    • Controls autonomic function (blood pressure,
    • digestion, etc).

    a. Sympathetic division

    b. Parasympathetic division
  4. 1) What kinds of neurons enter the CNS?


    2) What kind of neurons leave the CNS?
    1) Sensory (afferent) signals picked up by sensor receptors

    • Carried by nerve fibers of PNS to the CNS

    2) Motor (efferent) signals are carried away from the CNS

    • Innervate muscles and glands
  5. What sheath covers the axon (not
    referring to myelin)?

    What sheath covers a fascicle (bundle of
    neurons)

    What sheath covers a bunch of fascicles?
    Endoneurium

    Perineurium

    Epineurium

  6. What three things do all neurons do?
    1. Receive a signal. Can be any type of stimulus (change in environment, signal from another neuron, etc).

    2. Transmit a signal to another location. E.g. finger touching something --> signal to spinal cord or brain.

    3. Stimulate another cell

    a. Another neuron --> transmit signal

    b. Muscle --> contraction

    c. Gland --> secretion
  7. What three characteristics do all neurons share?
    1. Longevity –can live and function for a lifetime

    2. Do not divide– fetal neurons lose their ability to undergo mitosis; neural stem cells are an exception

    3. High metabolic rate – require abundant oxygen and glucose
  8. Picture of Sensory vs Motor Neurons
  9. Photo of NEURON anatomy
  10. What receives the signal and
    carries the nerve conduction toward the cell body?
    DENDRITES
  11. Where are the nucleus, ribosomes, and
    most organelles are located?
    The CELL BODY
  12. What has the function of transmitting
    signals?
    AXON
  13. What part of a neuron
    stimulates another cell?
    SYNAPTIC KNOBS
  14. Describe the correct path an
    impulse takes across a synapse.
    Axon of presynaptic neuron -->SYNAPTIC CLEFT --> dendrite of post synaptic neuron
  15. What are synaptic knobs
    filled with?
    • The synaptic knob has vesicles filled with a neurotransmitter
    • that carries the signal.

  16. What are 4 types of glia cells?
    Oligodendrocyte

    Schwann Cell

    Astrocyte

    Microglia
  17. - What are the supporting cells of the nervous system?

    - Where do most tumors originate from?
    GLIA
  18. Most tumors of the brain originate from glial cells.
  19. Photo of two of the 4 types of glial cells
    Oligodendrocytes

    • Schwann Cell
  20. Which cells provide the myelin sheath for
    neurons in the CNS?

    Which cells provide the myelin sheath for
    neurons in the PNS?
    OLIGODENDROCYTES


    SCHWANN CELLS
  21. What is the function of MYELIN SHEATHS
    to speed up the nerve conduction.
  22. What are the BARE regions of axonal membranes found only in myelinated axons called?
    NODES OF RANVIER
  23. What conducts impulses faster – myelinated or unmyelinated axon?
    Myelinated
  24. What is an autoimmune disease where the oligodendrocytes (the myelin sheaths) are destroyed, interfering with the neuron functions in the CNS and brain?
    MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
  25. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
    MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
  26. What are the two differences between SCHWANN CELLS and OLIGODENDRICYTES?
    • Schwann cells are in PNS and each cell only forms one myelin sheath.
    • Oligodendricytes are in CNS and each cell can form more than one myelin sheaths.
  27. What are the 3 functions of an ASTROCYTE?
    a. Physically supports the neurons

    b. Transmits materials from capillaries to neurons

    c. Forms blood-brain barrier (BBB)
  28. What is the only function of the BBB?
    The only function of the blood-brain barrier is to help protect the central nervous system.
  29. Define MICROGLIA and their function
    They are macrophages

    They pick up bacteria and dead cell, etc
  30. What is the portion of the CNS that is unmyelinated (cell bodies of neurons, glia, and dendrites)?
    GREY MATTER
  31. What is the portion of the CNS with myelin
    (axons)
    WHITE MATTER
  32. What is a collection of axons in the PNS?
    NERVE

    No cell bodies, dendrites, or synapses; just axons.
  33. What is a collection of axons in the CNS
    TRACT
  34. Where is most information processed?
    SYNAPSES

    Most synapses are in the CNS
  35. What is a collection of cell bodies in the PNS?
    Ganglion
  36. What is a network of nerves called?
    NERVE PLEXUS
  37. What are the neurons that leave the CNS to
    effect a muscle or gland?
    MOTOR NEURONS
  38. What neurons go from body to CNS, carrying
    sensory information?
    SENSORY NEURON
  39. What is a small neuron found only in the CNS?
    INTERNEURON
  40. What is the function of interneuron?
    it connects two other neurons in the spinal cord
  41. What makes the CNS complex?
    The large number of interneurons in the CNS
  42. Where are the cell bodies of motor
    neurons and interneurons located?
    In gray matter

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