Math Midterm
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Hamilton Apportionment
 Step 1: Calculate each state's standard quota
 Step 2: Give each state it's lower quota
 Step 3: Give the surplus seats to largest residues

Jefferson Apportionment
 Step 1: Find a "suitable" lower divisor
 Step 2: Compute each state's modified quota
 Step 3: Each state is apportioned its modified lower quota

Adam's Apportionment
 Step 1: Find a "suitable" larger divisor
 Step 2: Compute each state's modified quota
 Step 3: Each state is apportioned its modified upper quota

Webster Apportionment
 Step 1: Find a "suitable" divisor
 Step 2: Compute each state's modified quota
 Step 3: Each state is apportioned it's modified quota using conventional rounding

Huntington Hill Apportionment
 Need both Upper and Lower quota, Geometric mean of U and L.
 If q < G, round down to L, otherwise round up.
 Ex: 3 x 4 = 12 > sqrt of 12 = 3.5 > roung up to 4

Convenience Sampling
Commonly used, the selection of which individuals are in a sample is dictated by what is easiest or cheapest for the data collector.

Simple Random Sampling
The most basic form of random sampling. Based on the same principle of a lottery: any set of #s has an equal chance of being chosen.

Stratified Sampling
Breaks sampling frame into categories called "strata" and then randomly choose a sample from these strata. The chosen strata are then further divided into categories called substrata.

Quota Sampling
A systematic effort to force the sample to be representative of a given population through the use of quotas.

Parameter
The numerical info we would like to have

Statistic
Any kind of numerical info drawn from a sample of a parameter.



3 Standard deviation
99.7%

Permutations
nPr =

Combinations
nCr =





r
The number of things you want to deal with