Philosophy midterm

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  1. Philospher's toolbox
    • ontology: "what" (define terms)
    • epistemology: "how" (physics)
    • metaphysics: "why"
    • ethics:"should"
    • logic: from build up of all above you get logic
  2. Ad Hominem:
    Attach of character (fallacy if character does not play role in conversation)
  3. Ad Hoc:
    Non-generalizable solution (lame excuse that works in only 1 situration, your not healed because you didnt believe, why did you run red light? I am allowed, no your not, thats because you didnt believe)
  4. Ad Populum:
    Appeal to popularity ( ex. everyone thought the world was flat)
  5. Ad Ignorantiam:
    Argument from ignorance
  6. Begging the question:
    arguing in a circle (my religion is right because my religion is right)
  7. False dilemmas:
    my way or the higway (no other options)
  8. Straw Man:
    reduce someones opinion to an obsurdity
  9. Fallacy of fallacies:
    Just because something is a fallacy doesnt make it untrue
  10. Context:
    where, what where
  11. content:
  12. Critical analysis:
    context and content
  13. Ludwig Wittgenstein
    "the beetle in the box"
    objects don't have meaning in and of themselves, only the meaning we impart
  14. Ludwig Wittgenstein
    "activities of Mrs. S"
    rules of language must be shared by 2 people to contisute a language
  15. phil. of mind
    Mental states
    • 1.happy, sad
    • 2. some established frame of mind
  16. phil. of mind
    Mental events
    • 1. act of establishing mental state
    • 2. more nebulous/difficult to pin-down
  17. phil. of mind
    • i.mind is an apparatus or mechanism or inner working
    • ii. explains how humans are capable of-action.rationality, emotion,perception,imagination
  18. phil. of mind
    Ontological nature of mind
    • i. idealist-material world is illusion
    • ii.materalist- mental world is illusion
    • iii. functionalist-both appear real (D.M. Armstong- functionalist w/materialist disposition
    • iv. buddhist- neither are real, shunyata
  19. Divided self
    how does the soul(or atman) control self.
    no soul but,Rational element controlled your curiosity and emotions/soul controlled intellect,mind,body, senses (soul= spark of life)
  20. Absent self
    two names associated w/view
    • Buddhism (anatman/nonself)
    • david hume (looked inward, saw nothing)
  21. mind and self
    Existentialist position
    question of self less important than what the self is doing
  22. Unified self
    johh lock
    • descartes(mind/body problem)
    • john lock(blank slate)
  23. The two ways to approach idea of religion
    • (1) religion as set of beliefs
    • (2) religion as set of practices
  24. Belief side of religion name catagories:
    • Deism- god created then left
    • theist- god present/personal
    • polytheism,henotheism,etc- many gods w/god king like zeus
  25. Gods in the Hindu pantheon:
    • Vishnu-male
    • shiva-male/female
    • devi-female
  26. Practice side of religion focuses on:
    • (1) philosophy
    • (2) ethics
    • (3) meditative practices
    • (4) devotional practices
  27. traditions associated with:
    cultivation of virtue and maintenance of ethics
  28. Traditions associated with taoism:
    living in harmony with the Tao (道), the source and essence of everything that exists
  29. Traditions associated with Jainism
    a path of non-violence towards all living beings
  30. Traditions associated with Buddhism
    yoga, meditation, sunyata
  31. Ontological arument for existence of god(nature of god): a priori
    Anslem:god=that which nothing greather can be conieved

    Descartes: concept of infinity proves gods existence
  32. Cosmological arugment for existence of god(nature of the universe): a postori
    Aquinas: co-opting aristotle's argument on physics (the un-moved mover)
  33. Teleological argument for existence of god (design): a postori
    Paley-watchmakers argument
  34. Moral argument for existence of god:
  35. Linear and circular views of time:
    • linear=beggining and end
    • cirular=continuous no beggining or end
  36. Argument against existence of God (hume's teleological arguments):
    (1) more complex object,likely more than 1 maker. (2) lack evidence to state things abou the universe except that its huge (3) "intelligent" or " sophisticated" cant be applied when we have nothing to compare (4)who designed designer etc(5)not address evil
  37. Karl Marx's on religion:
    • coping mechanism for exploitation
    • (1)faulse conciousness (high heel thing) internalize power dynamic, reproduce it for self and next generation
    • (2) religion is opium for the masses
  38. Triangle of theodicy
    • god is...all powerful...all knowing...all good
    • and evil exists
  39. 2 traditions of christian theodicy
    • (1) augustinian-free will/sin
    • (2) Irenaean-process theodicy/good comes from experiance
  40. Augustine's 2 types of evil:
    • evil people suffer=punishment for sin
    • evil people do= a sin born of free will
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Philosophy midterm
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