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- “He that ne’er learns his A,B,C For ever will a Blockhead be”
- Republican Motherhood;played a major role in training future citizens, laying the “foundation of national morality” No direct involvement in politics for women, but it encouraged their educational opportunities, so that they could impart their wisdom to their children.
- Dividing Western Lands: 1782-1802
- Westward Expansion;The right to take possession of western lands was an essential element of American freedom. Native American land titles ignored. Frequent disputes over land, as some monopolized acreage. As disputes filled courts, many pushed still further west, more potential for conflict with Native Americans.
- Western Land Ordinances:
- ORDINANCE of 1784
- --drafted by Thomas Jefferson
- --established stages of self-government for the west
- --region divided into districts by Congress and eventually admitted to Union as member states.
- ORDINANCE of 1785
- --regulated land sales north of Ohio River, the Old Northwest
- --land sold in “sections” (640 acres) at $1 /acre
- --each township would set aside one section for public education
- --supposed to control and concentrate settlement, would also raise money for Congress.
- NORTHWEST ORDINANCE (1787)
- --called for eventual establishment of from 3 to 5 states north of Ohio River and east of the Mississippi.
- --Jefferson’s “Empire of Liberty”—rather than ruling over the West as a colonial power, the U.S. would admit the area’s population as equal members of the political system
- --pledged that the “utmost good faith” would be observed toward Native Americans and that their land would not be taken without consent.
- --officially prohibited slavery in the Old Northwest, though that was repeatedly violated
Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery Expedition (1804-1806) Goals: study the area’s plants, animal life, geography, discover how the region could be exploited economically, establish trade with Native Americans in the west, locate a water route to the Pacific (the Northwest Passage idea again) to trade with Asia.
Unfree Migration-Slave Coffles—groups chained together on forced marches to the Deep South—were a common sight.
- Indian Removal: Map
- Indian Removal Act (1830) 1828: Jackson urges Congress to remove southeastern tribes.
- Jackson: Tribes are “surrounded by whites, [so] they were inevitably doomed to weakness and decay.” Also: gold, demand for cotton and land. 1830 Act: “gave” Indians land west of Mississippi River in exchange for their homelands. Congress authorized to forcefully resettle those who resist.
- 1830-1832: Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks forced to leave.
- 1836: Cherokees who resisted removal are forced to leave. Approx. 4000 die in the winter of
- 1837-38. “Trail of Tears.”
- “Conductor” of the Underground Railroad: Harriet Tubman
- Probably the best known “conductor” or the underground railroad. She was born in Maryland in 1820, escaped to Philadelphia in 1849, Spent the next decade of her life making some 20 trips back to her state of birth to lead relatives and other slaves to freedom
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, the most widely read of all antislavery writings. Modeled after an autobiography of fugitive slave Josiah Henson. First published in 1851 in a Washington anti-slavery newspaper, published as a book in 1852. Sold over 1M copies by 1854. Portrayed slaves as sympathetic men and women, Christians who were at the mercy of slaveholders who split up families and set bloodhounds on mothers and children—gave powerful human appeal to the abolitionist movement.
- Bleeding Kansas-When Kansas held elections in 1854-55, hundreds of pro-slavery Missourians crossed the border to cast ballots (fraudulently). President Franklin Pierce recognized the resulting proslavery legislature. Settlers from free states soon established a rival government, and a civil war broke out in Kansas, wherein 200 people died. “Bleeding Kansas,” as it was called, did much to discredit Douglas’s policy of letting the local population decide the status of slavery. May 24, 1856: Leads raid against proslavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas.
- Murders 5 with swords; bodies hacked to pieces. Retaliation for earlier deaths of antislavery activists; caning of Charles Sumner? Impact of Bleeding Kansas: Emergence of Republican Party (1856). Kansas admitted as free state, January 29, 1861.