POL Review for Exam 1
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POL Review for Exam 1
review for the first of the semester
What two attributes allow government to function?
Means of coercion(force)
What does government do?
What is government?
A set of institutions that rule a land and it's people.
What is politics?
Who gets what/when/how
Conflicts/struggles/actions to influence decisions/resources/etc.
All citizens decide on public business in small assemblies
Found in small societies
Has an assembly and council
Indirect democracy in which the people rule through elected officials
Benchmarks of Rep. democracy
Popular sovereignty- ppl are source of gov. authority
Political Equality- everyone is treated equal(civil rights)
Political Liberty- ppl have the right to freedoms(social contract-gov. is the result of an agreement among the ppl)
Key issues in Dec. of Ind.
All men are created equal
Gov. gets pwr from the ppl
If gov. fails, the ppl have the right to set up another one
Who wrote the Dec. of Ind.?
Influenced by John Locke's ideas of life, liberty, and property
The Articles of Confederation problems
National government could not finance activities
Had a very weak central government
States has most pwr
States could impose taxes on goods from other states
Led by Daniel Shay
Went to prevent the courts from working
Farmers has unpaid taxes and their farms were going to be taken away
"Who Were the Framers?"
Wealthy bankers, lawyers, merchants, plantation owners
Well educated- used western philosophy and political science(quote Plato, Aristotle, Locke, Montisque)
Historian Charles Beard
An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution
Constitution is a conspiracy to protect their immediate and personal economic interests
A proposal by the larger states to be represented based on population.
New Jersey Plan
A proposal by the smaller states to be represented with an equal number of representatives from each state.
Know as the
Has 2 chambers
The House of Representatives=435 (based on pop.)
The Senate=2 each state (=reps)
Explains how people would be elected (Congress, H of R, Senate)
Of lower importance
If a law is unconstitutional
Laws and treaties of the National Government are the supreme law and take precedent over state constitutions
Article 1 section 8
Congress can make laws that are necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated responsibilities.
The Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
In order to be ratified, the Bill of Rights was made at the first Congress
The freedom of speech, religion, press, assemble, and petition
The right to bear arms
A controversial topic
Right against unreasonable searches and seizures
Right to a speedy, public, and impartial trial.
Seperation of Powers
Distribution of government btwn the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
Checks and Balances
Each branch has the pwr to hinder the actions of the other branches as a way to prevent tyranny
Rule by ppl is indirect through multiple layers of reps.
Term "ppl" is narrowly defined
Office holding=only privileged
Government is limited
James Madison- #10- Repub. over direct democracy
#51- checks & balances/different branches
What the framer's were doing and why:
an argument in favor of a Republic
McCullock vs. Maryland (1819)
Maryland imposed a tax on Bank of U.S.
Law was unconstitutional
Justice Marshall gave a broad reading of the necessary and proper clause
This led to the expansion of what the national government could do