Biolab140.txt

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Author:
itzlinds
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140135
Filename:
Biolab140.txt
Updated:
2012-03-19 11:21:39
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Respiratory physiology
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Respiratory physiology
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  1. Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for tidal volume ( TV):
    • Define: the amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one cycle during quite breathing
    • How to calculate:
    • Typical value: 500 mL
  2. Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for inspiratory reserve volume (IRV):
    • Define: amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort.
    • How to calculate:
    • Typical value: 3000 mL
  3. Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for Expiratory reserve volume (ERV):
    • Define: amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be exhaled with maximum effort
    • How to calculate:
    • Typical volume: 1200 mL
  4. Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for residual volume(RV):
    • Define: the amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration ; amount of air that can never be voluntarily exhaled
    • How to calculate:
    • Typical value: 1300 mL
  5. Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for vital capacity (VC):
    • Define: the amount of air that can be inhaled and then exhaled with maximum effort; the deepest breath possible.
    • How to calculate: VC=ERV+ TV + IRV
    • Typical value: 4700 mL
  6. Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for inspiratory capacity (IC):
    • Define: the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal expiration
    • How to calculate: IC = TV + IRV
    • Typical value: 3500mL
  7. Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for functional residual capacity:
    • Define: the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal expiration
    • How to calculate: FRC = RV + ERV
  8. Define, know how to calculate, list the typical value for the total lung capacity (TLC):
    • Define: the maximum amount of air the lungs can contain
    • How to calculate: TLC = RV + VC
    • Typical value: 6000 mL
  9. Define, know how to calculate, list the typical value for the forced Expiratory volume:
    • Define: the volume of air or the percentage of the vital capacity that can be exhaled in a given time interval
    • How to calculate:
    • Typical value: 75% -85% of vital capacity in 1.0 second
  10. Define, know how to calculate, list the typical value for the minute ventilation rate (MVR):
    • Define: the amount of air inhaled per minute
    • How to calculate: MVR = TV x Respiratory rate
    • Typical value: 6000mL/min
  11. Define, know how to calculate, list the typical value for the alveolar ventilation rate (AVR):
    • Define: the body's ability to get oxygen to the tissues and dispose of carbon dioxide
    • How to calculate:
    • Typical value: 4200 mL/min
  12. The temporary cessation of breathing (one or more skipped breaths) is called:
    Apnea
  13. Relaxed, quitebreathing is called:
    Eupnea
  14. Labored, gasping breathing; shortness of breath is called:
    Dyspnea
  15. Increased rate and depth of breathing in response. To exercise, pain, or other conditions is called:
    Hyperpnea
  16. Accelerated respiration is called:
    Tachypnea
  17. A difficiency of oxygen in tissues or the inability to use oxygen is called:
    Hypoxia
  18. A PCO2 greater than 43 mm Hg is called:
    Hypercapnia
  19. A PCO2 less than 37 mm Hg is called:
    Hypocapnia
  20. A blood pH lower than 7.35 is called:
    Acidosis
  21. A blood pH greater than 7.45 is called:
    Alkalosis
  22. Increased pulmonary ventilation in excess of metabolic demand, frequently associated with anxiety; expels CO2 faster than it is produced , thus lowering the blood CO2 concentration and raising the blood pH is called:
    Hyperventilation
  23. Reduced pulmonary ventilation;leads to an increase in blood CO2 concentration if ventilation is insufficient to expel CO2 as fast as it is produced is called:
    Hypoventilation
  24. The respiratory volumes and capacities can be measured using an instrument called a:
    Spirometer
  25. Lab test results: Tidal volume 1100, expiratory reserve volume 2100, vital capacity 2300, respiratory rate 16/min.

    calculate the the inpsiratory reserve volume:
    • IRV = VC - (TV+ ERV)
    • IRV = 900
  26. Lab test results: Tidal volume 1100, expiratory reserve volume 2100, vital capacity 2300, respiratory rate 16/min.

    calculate the inspiratory capacity:
    • IC = TV + IRV
    • IC = 2000
  27. Lab test results: Tidal volume 1100, expiratory reserve volume 2100, vital capacity 2300, respiratory rate 16/min.

    calculate the functional residual capacity:
    • FRC = ERV + RV (assume 1200)
    • FRC = 2100 + 1200
    • FRC = 3300
  28. Lab test results: Tidal volume 1100, expiratory reserve volume 2100, vital capacity 2300, respiratory rate 16/min.

    determine the minute ventilation rate:
    • MVR = respiratory rate x TV
    • MVR = 16 x 1100
    • MVR = 17600
  29. calculate the functional residual capacity of an indiviual with an expiratroy reserve volume of 1300 mL, a residual voulme of 1100 mL, and an inspiratory reserve volume of 3000 mL (show work):
    • FRC = ERV + RV
    • FRC = 1300 + 1100
    • FRC = 2400
  30. calculate the inspiratory reserve volme of an individual wiht a vital capacity of 4400 mL., and expiratory reserve volme of 1300 mL, and a tidal volme of 500 mL ( show work)
    • IRV = VC - ( TV = ERV)
    • IRV = 4400 - (500-1300)
    • IRV = 4400 - 800
    • IRV = 3600
  31. calculate the tidal volume of an individual with a total lung capacity of 5800 mL, a residual voume of 1000 mL, and inspiratory reserve volume of 2400 mL, an expriatory reserve volume of 1600 mL, and a vital capaticy of 4800 mL (show work)
    • TV = TLC - (IRC + ERV + RV)
    • TV = 5800 - (2400 + 1600 + 1000)
    • TV = 5800 - 5000
    • TV = 800
  32. calculate the inspiratory capacity of an individual with a vital capacity of 4400 mL, a residual volume of 1300 mL, and a functional residual capacity of 2500 mL ,and a tidal volume of 500 mL ( show work)
    • IC = TV + IRV
    • IRV = VC - (TV + ERV)
    • ERV= FRV - RV

    • ERV = 2500-1300
    • ERV = 1200
    • IRV = VC - (TV + ERV)
    • IRV = 4400 - (500+ 1200)
    • IRV = 2700
    • IC = TV + IRV
    • IC = 500 + 2700
    • IC = 3200
  33. If Fred has a tidal volume of 600 mL, and a breathing rate of 12 breaths/min. calculate Fred's minute ventilation rate (show work)
    • MVR= RESPIRTATORY RATE X TV
    • MVR = 12 X 600
    • MVR = 7200
  34. assumming Fred's anatomical dead space is 200 mL, calculate his alveolar ventilation rate ( show work)
  35. write the chemcial equation that demonstrates how CO2 and H+ (pH) are directly related to one another:
  36. Explain why exhaling into the solution caused a color change:
    CO2 is an acid when combinded with H2O the rxn is into carbonic acid (H2CO3). The carbonic acid mixed with a base neutralizes the solution, which is why the solution changed from pink to clear.
  37. why did the color change occur more quickly after exercise than under resting conditions:
  38. where are the peripheral chemoreceptors found?
    carotid bodies and aoritc bodies
  39. what are the principle stimuli for the peripheral chemoreceptors?
    blood gas concentration and blood pH
  40. where are the central chemoreceptors found?
    meduall oblongata
  41. what is the principle stimulus for the central chemoreceptors?
    pH of the CSF
  42. describe what happens during hyperventilation, include the underlying cause of change, conditions that resulted, and which chemoreceptors responded and how they responded
    • hyperventilation:
    • cause of change: blowing off CO2 faster than the body produces it
    • condition result: alkalosis
    • chemoreceptors: both
    • how respond: decrease
  43. describe what happens during re-breathing air, include the underlying cause of change, conditions that resulted, and which chemoreceptors responded and how they responded
    • cause of change: no O2 available, inhaled CO2 or increased CO2, and increased pH levels
    • condition result: acidosis
    • which receptors: peripheral
    • how respond: increase
  44. describe what happens during breath holding, include the underlying cause of change, conditions that resulted, and which chemoreceptors responded and how they responded
    • cause of change: decrease O2, increased CO2
    • condition result: acidosis
    • chemoreceptors: both
    • how respond: increase
  45. describe what happens during exercise, include the underlying
    cause of change, conditions that resulted, and which chemoreceptors responded and how they responded
    • cause of change: no change in CO2 or O2 levels
    • condition result: increased pulmonary ventilation keeps blood gas valuse the same
    • receptors: activity in muscles
  46. what combinds with water to form carbonic acid?
    CO2
  47. when carbonic acid dissociates, hydrogen (H +) and what other ion is released?
    HCO3 -
  48. As the blood concentration of CO2 increases, the pH of the blood (increase/decreases/does not change).
    decreases
  49. if the level of O2 in the blood decreases signigicantly ( < 60 mm Hg), the breathing rate will __________(increase/ decrease/ not change).

    what receptors are primarily responsible for triggering this response?
    increase

    both
  50. a blood pH >7.45 is called _________ and can be caused by a defieiency of CO2 called __________
    • alkalosis
    • hypocapnia
  51. In lab you measured several respiratory volumes and capacities with a spirometer. What parameter were you measuring when you took the deepest inhalation you could and then exhaled all the air you possibly could into the spirometer?

    vital capacity
    inspiratory capacity
    expiratory reserve volume
    inspiratory reserve volume
    functional residual capacity
    vital capacity
  52. If Billy Ray's total lung capacity is 7000 mL, vital capacity is 5600 mL, tidal volume is 700 mL, and expiratory reserve volume is 1500 mL, what is Billy Ray's residual volume?

    800 mL
    1400 mL
    2200 mL
    700 mL
    3400 mL
    1400 mL
  53. When the CO2 concentration in the blood decreases, which of the following is TRUE?

    A. The pH of the blood increases.
    B. The H+ concentration in the blood increases.
    C. The rate of baroreceptor firing decreases.
    D. All of the above.
    E. A and B
    F. None of the above.
    D. all of the above
  54. Where are the central chemoreceptors found?

    carotid sinus
    pons
    carotid bodies and aortic bodies
    medulla oblongata
    Circle of Willis
    meduall oblongata

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