Card Set Information
an earth-centered theory of the universe
a sun-centered theory of the universe
study of spectra and spectral lines
force with which all matter attracts all other matter
Apparent displacement of an object due to motion of observer
Apparent westward motion of a planet with respect to background stars
Coordinate for measuring east-west positions of objects on celestial sphere
Angular distance of celestial object north or south of celestial equator
Great circle on celestial sphere 90 degrees from celestial pole
Point directly above Earth's North Pole where Earth's axis of rotation, if extended, would intersect celestial sphere
North Celestial Pole
Point directly above Earth's South Pole where Earth's axis of rotation, if extended, would intersect celestial sphere
South Celestial Pole
Apparent annual path of sun on celestial sphere
star that neither rises nor sets but appears to rotate around of the celestial poles
point in orbit where satellite or moon is farthest from Earth
Point in orbit where satellite is nearest to Earth
Geometric arrangement of planet in same part of sky as the sun, so that the planet is at elongation of 0 degrees
Configuration of planet when it is at an elongation of 180 degrees and thus appears opposite the sun in the sky
planet that is closer to the sun than Earth is
Planet more distant from the sun than Earth is
Wrote "Almagest," a book that explains the motions of the stars
Created Geocentric model with Earth at center of universe and in which the Earth didn`t move
Catalogued 1,028 stars and described all known variations of constellations and legends that went with them. Gave these formations Greek and Roman names which are still used today.
Renowned cartographer, wrote the book titled “Geographia”. This book contained detailed maps of the world and served travelers for hundreds of years.
Observed and measured the (rough) distance to a supernova, proving that firmament was not a god-given stable sphere but a dynamic system
Made most accurate measurements of planetary positions at the time and for long thereafter. His data was used by Kepler to develop Kepler`s laws.
Was a lawyer, tax collector, doctor, military governor, judge, vicar-general of canon law and Polish astronomer
Said that Earth was not stationary, but that it turns on its axis once a day and doubted that Earth was in the middle of the universe.
Said sun was at center of universe and all planets revolve around the sun. Published a book on revolution of heavenly bodies
His most famous work is the book "De Revolutions"
Created three laws of planetary motion
Kepler's first law of planetary motion
Planets travel in elliptical orbits around an off-center sun
Kepler's second law of planetary motion
The speed of a planet`s orbit depends on its distance from the sun. A planet orbits faster when it is closer to the sun. When a planet is further away, it travels slower.
Kepler's third law of planetary motion
The farther a planet or dwarf planet is from the sun, the longer its orbit.
Created the three laws of motion
Newton's first law of motion
Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it
Newton's second law of motion
Force = mass times acceleration
Newton's third law of motion
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
These men subscribed to the geocentric model
Ptolemy and Brahe
These men subscribed to the Heliocentric model
Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Galileo
Why was Ptolemy's model accepted for so long?
Religious reasons; More intuitive than the Copernican model
Order of the planets
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, (Pluto)
Which planets exhibit retrograde motion?
Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
What is retrograde motion?
An optical illusion as Earth orbits faster than the other outer planets
Describe the mass, density, atmosphere,and rotational speed of inner planets
Mass--smaller; Density--very dense, because they are made of heavier materials; varied atmospheres; spin slowly
Describe the mass, density, atmosphere, and rotational speed of outer planets
Mass--bigger (made of gases); Density not dense at all; similar atmospheres; spin quickly
Planet with no atmosphere
Planets with atmospheres of mostly carbon dioxide
Planet with an atmosphere of mostly nitrogen, with small amounts of oxygen
Planets with atmospheres of hydrogen, helium, and other gases
The Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune)
What causes the seasons?
A tilt on a planet's axis of rotation
How can one find Polaris?
The closer you are to the north pole, the higher in the sky Polaris will be
Formula for Kepler's third law
P (orbital period of a planet) squared = a (semi-major axis of orbit) cubed
Know waxing/waning, gibbous/crescent, first/third quarters
Remember that the moon waxes to the left, and wanes to the right
Phase of the moon when it is between the earth and sun
Phase of the moon when we are between it and the sun
Phases of the moon that happen when the moon is at a 90 degree angle with respect to the earth and sun
When the moon travels completely into the earth's umbra
Total lunar eclipse
when only a portion of the moon travels into the earth's umbra
Partial lunar eclipse
Angular size formula
D = (AD)/206,265 where D=linear size of object, a= angular size of object in arcseconds, and d= distance to the object
Newton's law of gravitation
Force = ((constant of G) x (mass of 1st object) x (mass of 2nd object))/(the square of the distance between the two planets)
Wavebands in order of increasing frequency
Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visible light, Ultraviolet, X-Ray, Gamma ray
an emission spectrum that exhibits all the wavelengths or frequencies of visible light--comes from a blackbody
spectrum that contains bright emission lines in few places--comes from a hot, tenuous cloud
Spectrum with dark lines superimposed on continuous spectrum--comes from a blackbody + cool, tenuous cloud
a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image
optical telescope which uses a single or combination of curved mirrors that reflect light and form an image
optical telescopes that combine specifically shaped mirrors and lenses to form an image