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2012-03-06 21:50:35

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  1. an earth-centered theory of the universe
    geocentric model
  2. a sun-centered theory of the universe
    Heliocentric model
  3. study of spectra and spectral lines
  4. force with which all matter attracts all other matter
    Gravitational force
  5. Apparent displacement of an object due to motion of observer
  6. Apparent westward motion of a planet with respect to background stars
    Retrograde motion
  7. Coordinate for measuring east-west positions of objects on celestial sphere
    Right Ascension
  8. Angular distance of celestial object north or south of celestial equator
  9. Great circle on celestial sphere 90 degrees from celestial pole
    Celestial equator
  10. Point directly above Earth's North Pole where Earth's axis of rotation, if extended, would intersect celestial sphere
    North Celestial Pole
  11. Point directly above Earth's South Pole where Earth's axis of rotation, if extended, would intersect celestial sphere
    South Celestial Pole
  12. Apparent annual path of sun on celestial sphere
  13. star that neither rises nor sets but appears to rotate around of the celestial poles
    Circumpolar star
  14. point in orbit where satellite or moon is farthest from Earth
  15. Point in orbit where satellite is nearest to Earth
  16. Geometric arrangement of planet in same part of sky as the sun, so that the planet is at elongation of 0 degrees
  17. Configuration of planet when it is at an elongation of 180 degrees and thus appears opposite the sun in the sky
  18. planet that is closer to the sun than Earth is
    Inferior planet
  19. Planet more distant from the sun than Earth is
    Superior planet
  20. Wrote "Almagest," a book that explains the motions of the stars
  21. Created Geocentric model with Earth at center of universe and in which the Earth didn`t move
  22. Catalogued 1,028 stars and described all known variations of constellations and legends that went with them. Gave these formations Greek and Roman names which are still used today.
  23. Renowned cartographer, wrote the book titled “Geographia”. This book contained detailed maps of the world and served travelers for hundreds of years.
  24. Observed and measured the (rough) distance to a supernova, proving that firmament was not a god-given stable sphere but a dynamic system
  25. Made most accurate measurements of planetary positions at the time and for long thereafter. His data was used by Kepler to develop Kepler`s laws.
  26. Was a lawyer, tax collector, doctor, military governor, judge, vicar-general of canon law and Polish astronomer
  27. Said that Earth was not stationary, but that it turns on its axis once a day and doubted that Earth was in the middle of the universe.
  28. Said sun was at center of universe and all planets revolve around the sun. Published a book on revolution of heavenly bodies
  29. His most famous work is the book "De Revolutions"
  30. Created three laws of planetary motion
  31. Kepler's first law of planetary motion
    Planets travel in elliptical orbits around an off-center sun
  32. Kepler's second law of planetary motion
    The speed of a planet`s orbit depends on its distance from the sun. A planet orbits faster when it is closer to the sun. When a planet is further away, it travels slower.
  33. Kepler's third law of planetary motion
    The farther a planet or dwarf planet is from the sun, the longer its orbit.
  34. Created the three laws of motion
  35. Newton's first law of motion
    Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it
  36. Newton's second law of motion
    Force = mass times acceleration
  37. Newton's third law of motion
    For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
  38. These men subscribed to the geocentric model
    Ptolemy and Brahe
  39. These men subscribed to the Heliocentric model
    Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Galileo
  40. Why was Ptolemy's model accepted for so long?
    Religious reasons; More intuitive than the Copernican model
  41. Order of the planets
    Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, (Pluto)
  42. Which planets exhibit retrograde motion?
    Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
  43. What is retrograde motion?
    An optical illusion as Earth orbits faster than the other outer planets
  44. Describe the mass, density, atmosphere,and rotational speed of inner planets
    Mass--smaller; Density--very dense, because they are made of heavier materials; varied atmospheres; spin slowly
  45. Describe the mass, density, atmosphere, and rotational speed of outer planets
    Mass--bigger (made of gases); Density not dense at all; similar atmospheres; spin quickly
  46. Planet with no atmosphere
  47. Planets with atmospheres of mostly carbon dioxide
    Venus, Mars
  48. Planet with an atmosphere of mostly nitrogen, with small amounts of oxygen
  49. Planets with atmospheres of hydrogen, helium, and other gases
    The Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune)
  50. What causes the seasons?
    A tilt on a planet's axis of rotation
  51. How can one find Polaris?
    The closer you are to the north pole, the higher in the sky Polaris will be
  52. Formula for Kepler's third law
    P (orbital period of a planet) squared = a (semi-major axis of orbit) cubed
  53. Know waxing/waning, gibbous/crescent, first/third quarters
    Remember that the moon waxes to the left, and wanes to the right
  54. Phase of the moon when it is between the earth and sun
    New moon
  55. Phase of the moon when we are between it and the sun
    Full moon
  56. Phases of the moon that happen when the moon is at a 90 degree angle with respect to the earth and sun
    First/Third moon
  57. When the moon travels completely into the earth's umbra
    Total lunar eclipse
  58. when only a portion of the moon travels into the earth's umbra
    Partial lunar eclipse
  59. Angular size formula
    D = (AD)/206,265 where D=linear size of object, a= angular size of object in arcseconds, and d= distance to the object
  60. Newton's law of gravitation
    Force = ((constant of G) x (mass of 1st object) x (mass of 2nd object))/(the square of the distance between the two planets)
  61. Wavebands in order of increasing frequency
    Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visible light, Ultraviolet, X-Ray, Gamma ray
  62. an emission spectrum that exhibits all the wavelengths or frequencies of visible light--comes from a blackbody
    Continuous spectrum
  63. spectrum that contains bright emission lines in few places--comes from a hot, tenuous cloud
    Emission spectrum
  64. Spectrum with dark lines superimposed on continuous spectrum--comes from a blackbody + cool, tenuous cloud
    Absorption lines
  65. a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image
    Refracting telescope
  66. optical telescope which uses a single or combination of curved mirrors that reflect light and form an image
    Reflecting telescope
  67. optical telescopes that combine specifically shaped mirrors and lenses to form an image
    Catadioptric telescopes