Biology3 Lab3

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kjel
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140214
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Biology3 Lab3
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2012-03-07 03:05:58
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Biology3 Lab3
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Biology3 Lab3
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  1. organic molecule
    organic compounds are molecules that contain both carbon and hydrogen
  2. 4 main organic compounds
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
  3. functional group
    • a group of atoms that gives a molecule specific characteristics or allows it to react in a particular way
    • Ex:
    • -Chem Formula; functional group ==> where found
    • -OH; hydroxyl ==> carbbohydrates
    • -COOH; carboxyl ==> lipids & proteins
    • -NH2; amino ==> proteins
    • -PO42- ; phosphate ==> phospholipids & nucleic acids
  4. dehydration
    a reation that removes a molecule of water
  5. anabolic reaction
    a reaction that produces a larger, more complex molecule
  6. catabolic reaction
    a reaction that breaks down large, complex molecules into smaller subunits
  7. endergonic reaction
    reactions that store energy
  8. exergonic reaction
    reactions that release energy
  9. is dehydration...
    anabolic or catatonic?
    endergonic or exergonic?
    • anabolic
    • endergonic
  10. is hydrolysis...
    anabolic or catatonic?
    endergonic or exergonic?
    • catatonic
    • exergonic
  11. hydrolysis
    a reaction where water is added to break the bonds
  12. carbohydrate
    organic molecules containing the elements C H & O in the characteristic ratio of 1: 2: 1
  13. saccharide
    monosaccharide
    disaccharide
    polysaccharide
    • sugar
    • mono*; simple sugars that have an exact 1:2:1 ratio
    • di*; two monosaccharides bonded together (w/o exact 1:2:1 ratio because of dehydration)
    • poly*; more complex carbohydrates that can consist of many monosaccharides; complex formulas
  14. lipid
    an organic molecule that is insoluable in water
  15. 4 examples of molecules in the lipid category:
    • waxes
    • fats and oils (triglycerides)
    • steroids
    • phospholipids
  16. saturated fat
    saturated fatty acids have two hydrogens on each carbon
  17. unsaturated fat
    unsaturated fatty acids have at least one double bond
  18. how does a phospholipid differ from a triglyceride?
    • phospholipids concain two fatty acids vs three for triglyceride.
    • phospholipids also contaon a phosphate group
  19. the role of an emulsifying agent:
    they transport lipids in the blood
  20. of the two ends of a phospholipid, which is hydrophilic and which is hydrophobic?
    the heads are hydrophilic and the tails are hydrophobic
  21. two examples of nucleic acids:
    • RNA
    • DNA
  22. nucleotide
    the building block of nucleic acids
  23. what three subunits is the nucleotide composed of?
    • a sugar (either deoxyribose or ribose)
    • a phosphate group
    • a nitrogenous base
  24. protein
    organic compounds that contain C,O,H, and N
  25. amino acid
    the building block of proteins
  26. the general structural formula for an amino acid has a carbon backbone attached to these 4 things:
    • hydrogen --OH
    • amino group --NH2
    • carboxyl group --COOH
    • R group -- a variable side group
  27. peptide bond
    a covalent bond between two amino acids
  28. levels of protein complexity
    • primary: sequence of the 20 kinds of amino acids
    • secondary: coiling of the amino acid strand, called an alpha helix
    • tertiary: folding of the alpha helix
    • quarternary: the combination of different acid chains
  29. Roles of Biologically Important Organic Molecules:
    Carbohydrates
    gluclose:
    starch:
    glycogen:
    cellulose:
    • gluclose: energy source and building blocks for more complex molecules
    • starch: long term energy storage in plants
    • glycogen: long term energy storage in animals
    • cellulose: structural support in plants
  30. Roles of Biologically Important Organic Molecules:
    Lipids
    triglycerides:
    phospholipids:
    cholesterol:
    • triglycerides: energy storage
    • phospholipids: component of cell membranes and can act as an emulsifying agent
    • cholesterol: precursor of many steroid hormones and a component of cell membranes
  31. Roles of Biologically Important Organic Molecules:
    Nucleic Acids
    DNA:
    RNA:
    • DNA: genetic material for all life on earth
    • RNA: genetic molecule involved in protein synthesis
  32. Roles of Biologically Important Organic Molecules:
    Proteins
    fibrous:
    enzymes:
    • fibrous: provide structural support
    • enzymes: speed up chemical reactions
  33. denatured
    destroy the characteristic properties of (a protein or other biological macromolecule) by heat, acidity, or other effects that disrupt its molecular conformation

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