Sociology 3 & 4

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Sociology 3 & 4
2012-03-07 03:05:36
Sociology Richard Schaefer

Sociology: A Brief Introduction
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  1. Face-work
    The efforts people make to maintain the proper image and avoid public embarrasment
  2. Gender Role
    Expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activites of males and females
  3. Generalized other
    The attitudes, viewpoints, and expectation of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his or her behavior
  4. Impression management
    The altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences.
  5. Life course approach
    A research orientation in which sociologist and other social scientists look closely at the social factors that influence people throughout their lives, from birth to death.
  6. Looking-glass self
    A concept that emphasizes the self as the product of our social interactions.
  7. Midlife crisis
    A stressful period of self-evaluation that begins at about age 40.
  8. Personality
    A person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior.
  9. Resocialization
    The process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life.
  10. Rite of passage
    A ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another.
  11. Sandwich generation
    The generation of adults who simutaneously try to meet the competing needs of their parents and their children.
  12. Self
    A distinct identity that sets us apart from others.
  13. Significant other
    An individual who is most important in the development of the self, such as a parent, friend, or teacher.
  14. Socialization
    The lifelong process in which people learn the attitudes, vales, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture.
  15. Total institution
    An institution that regulates all aspects of a person's life under a single authority, such as a prison, the military, a mental hospital, or a convent.
  16. Achieved status
    A social position that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts.
  17. Agrarian societ
    The most technologically advanced form of preindustryial society. Members engage primarily in the production of food, but increase their crop yeilds through technological innovations such as the plow.
  18. Alienation
    A condition of estrangement or dissociation from the surrounding society
  19. Ascribed status
    A soical position assigned to person by society w/o regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics.
  20. Bureaucracy
    A component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve effciency.
  21. Bureaucratization
    The process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic.
  22. Classical theory
    An approach to the study of formal organizations that views workers as being motivated almost entirely by economic rewards.
  23. Coalition
    A temporary or permanent alliance geared toward a common goal.
  24. Formal organization
    A group designed for special purpose and structured for maximum efficency.
  25. Goal displacement
    Overzealous conformity to official regulations of a bureaucracy.
  26. Group
    Any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis.
  27. Humans relations approach
    An approach to the study of formal organization that emphasizes the role of people, communication, and participation in a bureaucracy and tends to focus on the informal structure of the organization.
  28. Ideal type
    A construct or model for evaluating specific cases.
  29. Industrial society
    A society that depends on mechaniation to produce its goods and services.
  30. In-group
    Any group or category to which people feel they belong.
  31. Labor union
    organized workers who share either the same skill or the same employer.
  32. Master status
    a status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position in society.
  33. Anticipatory socialization
    Processe of socialization in which a person rehearses for future positions, occupations, and social relationships.
  34. Cognitive theory of development
    The theory that children's throught progresses through for stages of development
  35. Degradation ceremony
    an aspect of the socialization process within some total institutions, in which people are subjected to humilating rituals
  36. Dramaturgical approach
    a view of social interaction which peopple are seen as theatrical performers.
  37. Out-group
    a group or category to which people feel they do not belong.
  38. Peter principle
    A principle of organizational life according to which every employee w/in a hierachy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence
  39. Postindustrial societ
    society economic system is based of control of information
  40. postmodern society
    a technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images.
  41. primary group
    a small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation
  42. reference group
    any group that individuals use a standard for evaluating themselves and their behavior.
  43. role conflict
    the situation that occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person.
  44. Role exit
    The process of disengagement from a role that is central to one's self-identity in order to establish a new role and identity.
  45. role strain
    the difficulty that arises when the same social postion imposes conflicting demands and expectations.
  46. secondary group
    a formal, impersonal group in which there is a little socia intimacy or mutual understanding.
  47. Social institution
    an organized pattern of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs.
  48. social role
    a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status
  49. social structure
    the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships.
  50. status
    a term used by sociologist to refer to any of the full range of socially defines postions w/in a large group or society.