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bio digestion unit flashcards
what are the chemicals of life?
Vitamins and Minerals, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, Proteins, Carbohydrates
What roles do vitamins and minerals preform in the body?
-They help with chemical reactions
-They are often found in complex chemicals
What roles do carbohydrates play?
-Primary energy source of cells
-Structural material of plant cell walls
What roles do proteins have?
-Structural components of the cell
-Composed of amino acids
What are the roles of lipids?
-Structural components of the cell membrane
What are the roles of nucleic acids?
-Genetic material that directs cell activity
-Composed of sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen bases
What is a carbohydrate?
a molecule composed of sugar subunits that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
Carbohydrates are often described as energy nutrients, why?
They provide a fast source of energy
All disaccharides are formed by a process called...
dehydration synthesis in which a water molecule is formed from the two monosaccharide molecules
The opposite reaction of dehydration synthesis is called...
hydrolysis in which a water molecule is used to break the bond of the disaccharide
a plant polysaccharide that makes up plant cell walls
the form of carbohydrate storage in animals
a plant carbohydrate used to store energy
a lipid composed of glycerol and saturated fatty acids; solid at room temperature
a lipid composed of glycerol and three fatty acids
a lipid composed of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids; liquid at room temperature
Triglycerides that are solid at room temperature are called...
Saturated fats means that...
there is only a single bond between the carbon atoms
Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
is the bad cholesterol because when the LDL level increases to the point that it exceeds the number of receptor sites then the LDL does bad things like clogs arteries
High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
Good cholesterol because it carries bad cholesterol back to the liver which begins breaking it down
a chemical that contains nitrogen; can be linked together to form proteins
a chain of amino acids that form the structural parts of cells or act as antibodies or enzymes
specialized proteins that help the body defend itself against disease
proteins that speed chemical reactions
In part proteins can help to explain diversity because...
a limited number of carbohydrates and lipids are found in all living things, but the array of proteins is almost infinite
Proteins are composed of...
20 different amino acids
the covalent bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the adjoining amino acids is called a...
Essential amino acids are...
the eight amino acids that the body cannot synthesize and must be obtained from your diet
the four levels of protein structure are..
primary, secondary, tertiary, and quarternary
Primary structure of protein is...
the unique sequence of amino acids in the chain
Secondary structure in protein is...
folds and coils that occur along the length of the chain
Tertiary structure in protein is...
further folding of the polypeptide chain
Quaternary proteins are...
large globular proteins formed from two or more polypeptides
the process that occurs when the bonds of a protein molecule are disrupted, causing a temporary change in shape
the process that occurs when the bonds of a protein molecule are disrupted, causing a permanent change in shape
a chemical that increases the rate of chemical reactions without altering the products or being altered itself
a protein catalyst that permits chemical reactions to proceed at low temperatures
a molecule on which an enzyme works
the area of an enzyme that combines with the substrate
an inorganic ion that helps an enzyme combine with a substrate molecule
an organic molecule synthesized from a vitamin that helps an enzyme to combine with a substrate molecule
Factors affecting enzyme reactions
pH, substrate molecule concentration, temperature, competitive inhibiton
a molecule with a shape complementary to a specific enzyme that competes with the substrate for access to the active site of the enzyme and blocks chemical reactions
the inhibition of an enzyme in a metabolic pathway by the final product of that pathway
the activation of the last enzyme in a metabolic pathway by the initial substrate
a change in an enzyme caused by the binding of a molecule
four components of the digestive process
What do the amylase enzymes in saliva do?
-initiate carbohydrate breakdown
-dissolves food particles
-activates taste buds
-lubricates the food
What do teeth do?
bite, tear, grind, and crush food into smaller particles
rhythmic, wavelike contractions of muscle that move food along the gastrointestinal tract
What muscles regulate the movement of food in and out of the stomach?
Digestive fluids in the stomach include...
hydrochloric acid (HCL), pepsinogens, and mucus
What does hydrochloric acid (HCL) do in the stomach?
kills pathogens and converts pepsinogen into pepsin
what does pepsin do in the stomach?
what does mucus do in the stomach?
protects the stomach from HCL and pepsin
What are the three components of the small intestine? (in order)
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
small, fingerlike projections that extend into the small intestine to increase the surface area for absorption
microscopic, fingerlike projections of the cell membrane
a blood vessel that connects arteries and veins; the site of fluid and gas exchange
a small vessel that transports the products of fat digestion to the circulatory system
a hormone released from the duodenum that stimulates pancreatic and bile secretions
an enzyme of the smell intestine that converts trypsinogen to trypsin
a protein digesting enzyme
an enzyme that completes protein digestion by converting short-chain peptides to amino acids
a lipid digesting enzyme
what does the pancreas secrete?
a component of bile that breaks down large fat globules
a hormone secreted by the small intestine that stimulates the release of bile salts
to remove the effects of a poison
crystals of bile salts that form in the gallbladder
the yellowish discoloration of the skin and other tissues brought about by the collection of bile pigments in the blood
chronic inflammation of the liver tissue characterized by growth of nonfunctioning fibrous tissue
the largest segment of the large intestine, where water reabsorption occurs
a hormone secreted by the stomach that stimulates the release of HCI
a hormone secreted by the small intestine that decreases gastric secretions and motility
What is the function of the mouth?
chewing of food and digestion of starch
what is the function of the stomach?
storage of food and initial digestion
what is the function of the small intestine?
digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids; the absorption of nutrients
what is the function of the pancreas?
production of digestive enzymes that act on food in the small intestine; storage of bicarbonate ions that neutralize stomach acid in the small intestine
what is the function of the large intestine?
absorption of water and storage of undigested food
What do the salivary glands secrete?
what does the stomach secrete?
what does the pancreas secrete?
what does the small intestine secrete?
what does the liver secrete?
what does the gallbladder secrete?
what does the large intestine secrete?
what is the function of salivary amylase (salivary glands)?
initiates the breakdown of polysaccharides to simpler carbohydrates
what is the function of hydrochloric acid (stomach)?
converts pepsinogen to pepsin, kills microbes
what is the function of pepsinogen (stomach)?
when converted to pepsin, initiates the digestion of proteins
what is the function of mucus (stomach)?
protects the stomach from pepsin and HCI
what is the function of pancreatic amylase (pancreas)?
continuous breakdown of carbohydrates into disaccharides
what is the function of bicarbonate ions (pancreas)?
neutralize HCI from the stomach
what is the function of trypsinogen (pancreas)?
when activated to trypsin, converts long chain peptides into short chain peptides
what is the function of lipase (pancreas)?
breaks down fats to glycerol and fatty acids
what is the function of erepsin (small intestine)?
completes the breakdown of proteins
what is the function of disaccharidesese/maltase (small intestine)?
break down disaccharides (e.g. maltose) into monosaccharides
what is the function of bile in the liver?
what is the function of bile in the gallbladder?
stores and secretes concentrated bile from the liver
what is the function of mucus in the large intestine?
helps movement of food waste
What is the pH level in the mouth?
What is the pH of the stomach?
What is the pH of the small intestine?
What is cholecystokinin (CCK)?
A hormone secreted by the small intestine that stimulates the release of bile salts
Small vessels that transport the products of fat digestion to circulatory system
A hormone released from the duodenum that stimulates pancreatic and bile salts
the hydrogenation of unsaturated fats into saturated fats, hard to break down
Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
An important steroid is a component in animals cell membranes
Protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins
food particles are engulfed by endocytosis and digested with a food vacuole
is the breakdown of food particles outside of cells, occurs in compartments
Animals with simple body plans have this. It functions in both digestion and distribution of nutrients
Complete digestive tract or alimentary canal
More complex animals have a digestive tube with two openings
Proper name for the throat
pharynx, it opens to both the esophagus and the trachea
conducts food from the pharynx down to the stomach by perstalsis
the epiglottis to block entry to the trachea (glottis) and the bolus is guided by the larynx
trachea leads to...
secrete hydrogen and chloride ions separately, in the stomach
aids in the fermentation of plant material and connects where the small and large intestine meet
The human cecum has an extension, what is it called and what is its purpose?
appendix, minor role in immunity
an animals assortment of teeth, structural variation reflecting diet