Professional Baking Chapter 4 vocabulary on various baking ingredients
The amount of water a flour can take up and hold while being made into a simple dough, based on a predetermined standard dough consistency or stiffness; expressed as a percentage of the weight of flour.
A mixture of finely ground almonds and sugar.
An enzyme in flour that breaks down starches into simple sugars.
The mineral content of flour; expressed as a percentage of the total weight.
A leavening ingredient that releases ammonia gas and carbon dioxide.
The process of sifting flour, primarily to separate the bran.
The hard outer covering of kernels of wheat and other grains.
Flour to which bran flakes have been added.
Strong flour, such as patent flour, used for breads.
A milling system to produce various grades of flour by repeatedly breaking the grains between rollers and sifting.
Regular granulated sucrose containing impurities that give it a distinctive flavor.
A fine, white flour made from soft wheat.
Any of a group of compounds, including starches and sugars, that supply energy to the body.
A leavener such as baking soda, baking powder, or baking ammonia, which releases gases produced by chemical reactions.
Unsweetened chocolate, consisting of cocoa solids and cocoa butter.
A tan-colored wheat flour made from the outer portion of the endosperm.
The dry powder that remains after cocoa butter is pressed out of chocolate liquor.
A white or yellowish fat found in natural chocolate.
Sucrose ground to a fine powder and mixed with a little cornstarch to prevent caking.
The process of beating fat and sugar together to blend them uniformly and to incorporate air.
Crème fraîche (krem fresh)
A slightly aged, cultured heavy cream with a slightly tangy flavor.
Natural, sweet chocolate containing no added fats other than natural cocoa butter; used for dipping, molding, coating, and similar purposes.
A flavored sugar syrup used to flavor and moisten cakes and other desserts.
Various enzymes, found in flour and in diastatic malt, that convert starch into sugar.
Double-acting baking powder
Baking powder that releases some of its gases when it is mixed with water and the remaining gases when it is heated.
Shortening containing emulsifiers so it can be used for high-ratio cakes.
A uniform mixture of two or more unmixable substances.
The starchy inner portion of grain kernels.
A flavoring ingredient consisting of flavorful oils or other substances dissolved in alcohol.
The portion of the grain kernel that is separated into a particular grade of flour. Usually expressed as a percentage.
The process by which yeast changes carbohydrates into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.
The process of whipping eggs, with or without sugar, to incorporate air.
A water-soluble protein extracted from animal tissue; used as a jelling agent.
plant embryo portion of a grain kernel.
A simple sugar available in the form of a clear, colorless, tasteless syrup.
An elastic substance, formed from proteins present in wheat flours, that gives structure and strength to baked goods.
Sucrose in a fine crystalline form.
Wheat high in protein.
Milk processed so the cream does not separate out.
A process that converts liquid oils to solid fats (shortenings) by chemically bonding hydrogen to the fat molecules.
A mixture of two simple sugars, dextrose and levulose, resulting from the breakdown of sucrose.
A nut paste, similar to almond paste, made of apricot kernels and sugar.
The production or incorporation of gases in a baked product to increase volume and to produce shape and texture.
A type of syrup containing maltose sugar, extracted from sprouted barley.
An artificial butter product made of hydrogenated fats and flavorings.
A heavy brown syrup made from sugarcane.
A fine grade of wheat flour milled from the inner portions of the kernel.
Heat-treated to kill bacteria that might cause disease or spoilage.
A weak flour used for pastries and cookies.
A soluble plant fiber, used primarily as a jelling agent for fruit preserves and jams.
A category of carbohydrate gums present in wheat flour and having strong water absorption ability.
Any basic shortening without emulsifiers, used for creaming methods and for icings.
A mixture of rye flour and hard wheat flour.
Coarse rye flour.
A syrup consisting of sucrose and water in varying proportions.
Single-acting baking powder
Baking powder that releases gases as soon as it is mixed with water.
Wheat low in protein.
Flour made from the entire wheat kernel minus the bran and germ.
Flour with a high protein content.
The chemical name for regular granulated sugar and confectioners’ sugar.
One or more types of sugar dissolved in water, often with small amounts of other compounds or impurities that give the syrup flavor.
The process of melting and cooling chocolate to a specific temperature in order to prepare it for dipping, coating, or molding.
Whole wheat flour
Flour made by grinding the entire wheat kernel, including the bran and germ.