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Def: Complex behaviour that are in born, automic, unvarying, and universal, providing the organism is development naturally and the environment provides stimulus.
Characteristics of Insticts
- * In born - genetically heritage* Automatic - imulsive, expontaneous
- * Unvarying - enduring, flexible
- * Universal - all member of the species.
Conditions of Instics
- 1. Organism must be develp mentally mature.
- 2. Environment must provide an adequate stimulus (proper conditions)
: mouse nest (all together) - no sex / homosexuality btwn male
Stimulus -----------------------------------> Respond
(threats, potential mates, survive) ---> (thoughtful)
- - Survival: do what it takes to preserve the specie (offspring) [ choice]
- " To be or not to be. Thats the question"
skill-based a choise.
highly structured n rule-governed
Products of social living that are learned, shared, and transmitted from generation to generation.
Are physical, tangible reminders of a ppl.
- cloth - tradition
- architecture - church, status, piramids, music
- technology - yoyo, bumerang, insulin
Material Culture Values
- Social standars of evaluation
- Resistant to change
- Not equally shared by everyone
End points, aspirations, goods ambitions.
- " Peace, order, and good goverment."
- " Life, liberty, and the persuit of happiness."
- Legitimate means to the end, socially accepted.
- Legitimate = codes of conduct, admirable qualities = the ideal friend, worker, partner.
Greert Hofstedet (1928)
5 dimentional framework for assesing cultures.
- General tendencies range:
- individualism - colectivism
- personal - centred group focused
- sharing & competition : we/us/ I/ me
Power distances : degree to which ppl accept the unequal distribution of power; egaliatirian hierarchical.
Ej: masculinity vrs feminine
- Rules & regulations/ settings/ situations
- Formal & informal
- Vary in degree of importance/ enforcement
- *folkways - tradicional/ customs
- *mores - vital morals & ethical sig (sex/religion)
- *laws - official rules
Non Material Culture
- -Mental products (non empirical)
- -Beliefs-faith based " truths"
- (myths, good and evil, after life)
- * provides order, structure, meaning
- * give directions, rules
- * sense of control over one's fate, minimize feeling of helpness
- * very powerful influence over many of life concerns (politics n social policy, health)
Non Material Culture Norms:
- - Roles:
- * achieve status (earn)
- * ascribed status (assigned- royalty,gender)
- - Sanctions:
- * rewards and punishments (abnormalities/extrange)
- * means of social control, to maintain order, conformity
- * appropiate to the deviation.
- Relatively shared of system of symbols
- (English language all but different vocabulary)
Mere representation of ideas, objects, events.
- - Have shored meaning amoung users
- - Important binding agents
- - Very powerful
Functions of Culture
- Adapt :
- * physical (technology help - transportation)
- * social (norms, rules, values - bring us together)
- * unknow (why re we here, meaning - religion)
Dysfunction of Culture
- - Ethnocentrism: culture that believe that they are supperior than other cultures. [Hittler]
- - Cultural Contamination (globalization): disrupt of traditions.
- - Cultural lag (adjustment) : industralization/ bio-enginiring.
- - Consumerism: depletion of resources, waste
- - Passing on of ignorance: [witch]