the nervous system
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what are the functions of the somatic sensory receptors
Transmit information from the skin such as touch or pain. Also, transmit information from skeletal muscles and joints such as position, movement, and the amount of stretch in muscles (proprioception- monitoring body position)
transmits sensory information from receptors to the CNS
what is visceral sensory receptors?
Transmit information from organ systems such as the digestive and respiratory systems. This includes the transmission of information such as stretching, pain, and taste.
what are the sub-structures of afferent division?
somatic sensory receptors
visceral sensory receptors
carries motor commands(response sent) from the CNS to muscles and glands
efferent divison is divided into what 2 systems?
- somatic nervous system (SNS) (VOLUNTARY)
- autonomic nervous system (ANS) (INVOLUNTARY)
sympathethic and parasympathetic divisons are a part of what system?
Allow the body to respond to stress (fight or flight)
ex. increasing heart rate
Opposes the sympathetic division and allows for energy(atp) conservation.
ex. decreasing heart rate
What are the key elements of nerve tissue?
What are the three key parts to typical neuron?
- soma (cellbody)
What is a Dendrite?
- branched structures
- receive incoming information (signals)
Soma(cellbody) can be classified as
- has a large nucleus
- contains many mitochondria, ribosomes, and RER that give the cytoplasm a grainy appearance
what is an axon?
- a long structure (tube-like) that may branch resulting in more than one synaptic terminal
- the synaptic terminal is the site wher the neuron can communicate with another neuron or cell
What are neurons based on structure?
- multipolar neuron
- unipolar neuron
- bipolar neuron
What are neurons based on function?
- sensory neurons
- motor neurons
What is a multipolar neuron?
- consists of two or mor dendrites and a single axon coming from the cell body
- this is the most common type of neuron
- ALL MOTOR NEURONS ARE MULTIPOLAR
What is a Unipolar Neuron?
- The cell body lies off to the side, while the dendrite and axon are aligned in one continous line
- MOST SENSORY NEURONS OF THE PNS ARE UNIPOLAR
Describe Bipolar Neuron
- Consists of two processes (extensions) from the soma, one a dendrite and the othe an axon
- They are found in specialsense organs as thoose for sight and smell
Sensory Neuron is
- from the afferent division of the PNS
- they receive information from sensory receptors that detect changes in the environment
sensory receptors may be catergorized based on the information they detected?
What are sensory receptors?
- EXTERNAL RECEPTORS
- detect changes in the surrounding environment such as touch or smell
- detect changes in body position/movement of skeletal muscles and joints
- VISCERAL SENSORY RECEPTORS
- detect changes in organsystems such as the digestive and respiratory systems, and provide info in relation to taste, deep pressure and pain
What are motor neurons?
- part of efferent div. of the PNS
- transmitt info(commands) from the CNS(control center) to tissues and organs(effectors)
motor neurons may be catergorized based on their target (effector) what are the two types?
- somatic motor neurons
- visceral motor neurons
somatic motor neurons
neurons of the SNS that intervate skeletal muscles(effector)
What ar visceral motor neurons?
neurons of the ANS that innervate all other tissue and organs including cardiac muscle and smooth muscle
give the classifications of interneurons
- located within the brain and spinal cord
- connect neurons to one another
- they distribute(sort) sensory info
- they coordinate motor activity
Where are neuroglia they located and function?
in the CNS and PNS and they provid support and protection for neurons
what are the 4 types of neuroglia in the CNS
- ependymal cells
What are astrocytes
- the largest and most numerous of the glial cells
- help maintain the blood-brain barrier
- myelinating cells. their cytoplasmic extensions wrap around axons, forming a myelin sheath that insulates the axon
- one oligodendrocyte myelinates segments(internodes) of several different axons
- it takes several oligodendrocytes to myelinate one axon
- gaps between the myelinated segments are called nodes
- myelination of axons increases the speed and efficency at which an action potential (electrical impulse) travels down the axon
- phagocytic cell
- protect neural tissue by removing waste and foreign microorganisms
- specicialized type of epithelialcell that produces cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)
- line the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. Where CSF is found
- they have cillia to help move CSF around the CNS
What are the neuroglial cells in the PNS
- satellite cells
- schwan cells
provide support for neurons
What are schwann cells?
- myelinate every axon in the PNS
- one schwann cells mylenates (internode) only one segment of one axon
- many schwann cells are needed to mylenate one axon
- gaps between internodes called ondes
- increases the speed and effiencency of an action potential
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