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What is cultural transmission?
- The transfer of information from individual to individual through social learning or teaching-both within and between generations of animals.
- A system of information transfer that affects an individual's phenotype by means of either teaching or some form of social learning.
What is social learning?
The process of learning by watching others.
What is most important about cultural transmission?
- It involves the spread of information from individual to individual. Can result in a dramatic shift from just one individual.
- It can occur within a population very quickly, which makes it a particularly potent form of information transfer.
What is local enhancement?
A phenomenon in which an individual is drawn to a particular area because it observed another individual in that location. No learning takes place. The action of a model draws the attention to some aspect of the environment.
What is social facilitation?
When the mere presence of a model, regardless of what it does, facilitates learning on the part of an observer.
What are two forms of social learning?
Imitation and copying.
What is imitation?
The acquisition of a topographically novel response through observation of a demonstrator making that response. Ex.: Imo's potato washing and blue tit birds removing foil of milk bottles.
What is copying?
Behavior that occurs when an observer repeats the actions of a demonstrator. The copier is often rewarded for whatever behavior it has copied. What is copied need not be novel and need not involve learning some new topographical action.
What is considered the definition of teaching?
- A behavior that occurs when one individual serves as an instructor and at least one other individual acts as a student who learns from the instructor. Teachers have a much more active and complicated role than just being a model that others mimic (as in social learning).
- Individual A modifies its behavior only in the presence of naive observer B, at some cost or without immediate benefit for itself.
- Teacher must provide an immediate benefit to student but not to self.
What are the modes of cultural transmission?
Vertical, horizontal, and oblique.
What is vertical cultural transmission?
Occurs when information is transmitted across generations from parent(s) to offsrping. Can take place either through teaching or social learning. Dolphins in foraging and beaching.
What is horizontal cultural transmission?
Cultural transmission is which information is passed across individuals of the same age or peer group.
What is oblique cultural transmission?
The transfer of information across generations from adults other than their parents. Fear response in monkeys when presented with a snake.