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Chapter 14 - nervous tissue
CNS vs PNS
-Structureal classification of neurons
-Functional classification of neurons
-4 types of glial cells, CNS, and functions
-2 types of glial cells, PNS, and functions
-Anatomy of chemical synapse
-Cross-section of a nerve
-Steps of regeneration
*Neurolemmocytes (Schwann cells): secrete nerve growth factor
- -Reversal of charge @ nodes of ranvier (Na+ rushing into cell changing negative to positive)
- *This causes Ca+2 to rush in and bind to vesicles which move into the pre-synaptic membrane facing the cleft.
- (NT: Presynaptic: Para/Symp both release ACh
- Post-synaptic: (para) ACh; Dopamine: secreted by midbrain)
Chapter 15 - Brain/Cranial Nerves
Development of brain - Primary (4th week) & Secondary (wk5) vesicles
-Gross features of brain
-Ventricles, CSF and subarachnoid space
-Anatomy of BBB
-Lobes & functional areas of brain
-Association, commissural & projection tracts
-Function of thalamus, hpyothalamus, & epithalamus
-Function of midbrain, pons, cerebellum & medulla
-Functions of each cranial nerve and openings in skull
Tentarium cerebeli: supports cerebral hemispheres.
- BBB (3)
- 1) Continuous basement membrane
- 2) Tight junctions (cell membranes are knitted together tightly)
- 3) Astrocytic processes
Homonuculus: mapping of the pre/post central gyri according to motor/sensory.
- Association tract: connect parts of same hemisphere.
- Commissural tract: right/left hemispheres
- Projection tract:
Thalamus: relays all somatic sensory (consious information from eyes, ears, skin, touch, organs)
Hypothalamus: receives visceral sensory & controls the ANS.
Epithalamus: circadian rythem.
Midbrain: substantia nigra (dark substance: dopamine).
- Pons: breathing; motor coordination
- Medulla: heart rate; breathing
- Cranial Nerves (X = not on test)
- -CN V: digastric, tympani, tensor veli = X
Chapter 16 - Spinal Cord & Spinal Nerves
-Regions of spinal cord
-External features of spinal cord
-Cross-section through spinal cord
-Anatomy of a spinal nerve
-Difference between dorsal and ventral rami
-Spinal cord segments that make up the brachial plexus
-Nerves of the brachial plexus
-Motor & sensory functions of nerves
-Understand functions of muscle groups & deficits
-Same for the nerves of the lower extremities
-Monosynaptic vs Polysynaptic reflexes
*Know sensory components of brachial plexus nerves (upper extremities)
- Lower extremities:
- Common Fib (superifical fib/deep fib)
Monosynaptic vs Polysynaptic: "quick twitch" of muscle from tapping the tendon.
Chapter 17 - Pathways
-Posterior Column - Medial Lemniscal Pathway
-Understand deficits w/ damage to pathways
Medial Lem: general sensation from skin.
Antero: pain from skin
Corticospinal: motor communication
Chapter Autonomic Motor System
Lateral Horns only @ T1 ~ L2 (symp) & S2 ~ S4 (para)
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