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2012-03-07 13:43:45
Exam review

exam 2 review
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  1. Chapter 14 - nervous tissue

    CNS vs PNS
    -Structureal classification of neurons
    -Functional classification of neurons
    -4 types of glial cells, CNS, and functions
    -2 types of glial cells, PNS, and functions
    -Saltatory conduction
    -Anatomy of chemical synapse
    -Cross-section of a nerve
    -Steps of regeneration
    *Neurolemmocytes (Schwann cells): secrete nerve growth factor

    • -Reversal of charge @ nodes of ranvier (Na+ rushing into cell changing negative to positive)
    • *This causes Ca+2 to rush in and bind to vesicles which move into the pre-synaptic membrane facing the cleft.
    • (NT: Presynaptic: Para/Symp both release ACh
    • Post-synaptic: (para) ACh; Dopamine: secreted by midbrain)
  2. Steps of Regeneration
  3. Chapter 15 - Brain/Cranial Nerves

    Development of brain - Primary (4th week) & Secondary (wk5) vesicles
    -Gross features of brain
    -Dural Septa
    -Dural Sinuses
    -Ventricles, CSF and subarachnoid space
    -Anatomy of BBB
    -Lobes & functional areas of brain
    -Association, commissural & projection tracts
    -Function of thalamus, hpyothalamus, & epithalamus
    -Function of midbrain, pons, cerebellum & medulla
    -Functions of each cranial nerve and openings in skull
    Tentarium cerebeli: supports cerebral hemispheres.

    • BBB (3)
    • 1) Continuous basement membrane
    • 2) Tight junctions (cell membranes are knitted together tightly)
    • 3) Astrocytic processes

    Homonuculus: mapping of the pre/post central gyri according to motor/sensory.

    • Association tract: connect parts of same hemisphere.
    • Commissural tract: right/left hemispheres
    • Projection tract:

    Thalamus: relays all somatic sensory (consious information from eyes, ears, skin, touch, organs)

    Hypothalamus: receives visceral sensory & controls the ANS.

    Epithalamus: circadian rythem.

    Midbrain: substantia nigra (dark substance: dopamine).

    • Pons: breathing; motor coordination
    • Medulla: heart rate; breathing

    • Cranial Nerves (X = not on test)
    • -CN V: digastric, tympani, tensor veli = X
  4. Chapter 16 - Spinal Cord & Spinal Nerves

    -Regions of spinal cord
    -External features of spinal cord
    -Cross-section through spinal cord
    -Anatomy of a spinal nerve
    -Difference between dorsal and ventral rami
    -Spinal cord segments that make up the brachial plexus
    -Nerves of the brachial plexus
    -Motor & sensory functions of nerves
    -Understand functions of muscle groups & deficits
    -Same for the nerves of the lower extremities
    -Monosynaptic vs Polysynaptic reflexes
    *Know sensory components of brachial plexus nerves (upper extremities)

    • Lower extremities:
    • Femoral
    • Obdurator
    • Tibial
    • Common Fib (superifical fib/deep fib)

    Monosynaptic vs Polysynaptic: "quick twitch" of muscle from tapping the tendon.
  5. Chapter 17 - Pathways

    -Posterior Column - Medial Lemniscal Pathway
    -Anterolateral Pathway
    -Spinocerebellar Pathway
    -Corticospinal Pathway
    -Understand deficits w/ damage to pathways
    -Functional differences
    Medial Lem: general sensation from skin.

    Antero: pain from skin

    Spino: proprioception

    Corticospinal: motor communication
  6. Chapter Autonomic Motor System

    Lateral Horns only @ T1 ~ L2 (symp) & S2 ~ S4 (para)