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2012-03-07 14:09:16

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  1. What is the first spectrum of the source-filter theory of vowel production and is also called the glottal spectrum (because the glottis is the source of the vowel sound/voicing; sound exists at larynx before being filtered by vocal tract)?
    Source Function
  2. What is the second specturm of the source-filter theory of vowel production where a resonance curve represents frequency response of the adult male vocal tract positioned for schwa vowel (with resonances at 500, 1500, & 2500 Hz)?
    Transfer function
  3. What is the third spectrum of the source-filter theory of vowel production which shows the sound when it emerges at the lips after it's been filtered. (Same F0 & harmonics as in glottal source but amplitudes have been modified)
    Output function
  4. What 2 things are always true of F1?
    • Lowest in frequency
    • Most intense
  5. How many formants do we recognize in speech?
  6. Irregular shape of the vocal tract makes it a ________ _______ resonator that transmits a wide range of frequencies around each resonanting frequency (RF).
    Broadly Tuned resonator
  7. The vocal tract is a _______-_______ resonator which means that it's a tube closed at the glottis and open at the lips.
    Quarter-Wave resonator
  8. Vocal tract is a __________ resonator whose frequency response changes depending on its shape. Varying areas of cavities resonate at different frequencies.
    Variable resonator
  9. Vocal tract consists of a series of connected air-filled containers (pharynx, oral cavity, & nasal cavity) that act as a ________-________ ________ to transmit certain frequencies within its bandwidth.
    Pass-Band Resonator/Band-Pass Filter
  10. What happens to frequencies that are outside of the Pass-Band Filters of the vocal tract?
    They are attenuated
  11. The vocal tract resonates at numerous resonating frequencies. RFs are odd-number multiples of the lowest RF. RFs of the vocal tract are called _________. If
    F1 has a frequency of X, then
    F2 will have a frequency of ______
    F3 will have a frequency of ______
    • Formants
    • F1=250 Hz then F2=750 Hz
    • F1=250 Hz then F3=1250 Hz
    • F2=300 Hz then F3=500 Hz
    • F3=250 Hz then F1=50 Hz
  12. Sound that emerges from vocal tract's filtering system has the ________ fundamental frequency and harmonics as glottal sound. What's changed?
    • Same
    • Amplitudes of the harmonics (some amplified others damped)
  13. __________ ____________ are related to the volumes of oral/pharyngeal spaces because containers of air will resonate at particular frequencies depending on their volumes.
    Larger volume=_______
    Smaller volume=__________
    • Fundamental Frequencies
    • Larger volumes=Lower frequencies
    • Smaller volumes=Higher frequencies
  14. Shaping of the vocal tract is independent of _______ ______ ________ so the source & transfer functions are independent.
    Vocal Fold Vibration
  15. There is an _________ relationship between F1 frequency and tongue height. The higher the tongue position, the _______ the F1 frequency. Why?
    • Inverse
    • Lower
    • High tongue position increases volume of pharyngeal cavity which responds to lower frequencies
  16. High vowels = ________ F1.
    Low vowels = ________ F1.
    • High vowels = Low F1
    • Low vowels = High F1
  17. F2 frequency is related to the _______ of the oral cavity (the space in front of tongue constriction and lips)
  18. Back vowels have a _______ distance between the tongue constriction and lips and are typically produced with ______ ________, which elongates the oral cavity.
    Back vowels=_____ F2
    Front vowels=_____ F2
    • Longer
    • Lip Rounding
    • Back vowels=Low F2
    • Front vowels=High F2
  19. In spectograms, what is represented on the vertical axis?
  20. In spectograms, what is respresented on the horizontal axis?
  21. In spectograms, how is intensity represented?
    Darkness of trace on screen
  22. What is the major sound source for stop consonants?
    Pressurized air forcefully exiting oral cavity
  23. Voiceless stops are ________ in duration than thoes of voiced stops because voiceless stops are characterized by __________. ________ air moving through glottis delays VF closure, resulting in longer burst.
    • Longer
    • Aspiration
    • Turbulent
  24. Time during which articulators are forming blockage & intraoral pressure is building up; can be seen in voiced stops as the voice bar on spectogram.
    Silent Gap
  25. Quick aperiodic sound which follows the silent gap and are usually seen in initial/medial stop positions (can't occur in final position).
    Release Burst
  26. Time between release of articulatory blockage (beg. of burst) to beginning of VF vibration for following vowel; measured in milliseconds and is indication of coordination bet/ laryngeal/articulatory systems.
    Voice Onset Time (VOT)
  27. How does VOT change as place of articulation moves backward in oral cavity?
    • Increases
    • Measured in intial stops
    • Bilabials=Shortest
    • Alveolar=Intermediate
    • Velars=Longest
  28. Negative value indicating that VFs are vibrating before articulatory release occurs.
    Prevoicing VOT Lead
  29. Onset of VF vibration follows shortly or delayed a long time after articulatory burst/release.
    VOT with Short/Long Lag
  30. Voice onset and articulatory release occur at the same time yeilding a VOT of zero.
    Simultaneous Voicing
  31. How does VOT variability in elderly speakers compare with young adults?
    Greater variability
  32. Energy in fricatives is ________ in duration than in stops.
  33. Other languages have different _______ from English.
  34. How many deciduous teeth do children have in each jaw?
  35. What is the primary muscle which makes up the lips?
    Obicularis Oris
  36. When the velum acts as a valve, it touches ______ ________ ________.
    Posterior Pharyngeal Wall
  37. Upcoming sound influences preceding sound.
    Backward Coarticulation
  38. Preceding sound influences an ensuing sound.
    Anticipatory Coarticulation
  39. F0 ________ in speakers at the end of interrogative sentences.
  40. F0 __________ in speakers at the end of declarative sentences.
  41. How do the FO,intensity, and duration of stressed syllables differ from unstressed syllables?
    A stressed syllable has a higher FO, higher intensity, and longer duration than an unstressed syllable, and it typically is the vowel that carries the increased stress.
  42. Which structures make up the vocal tract?
    Lips, tongue, velum, larynx (labial,lingual,velopharyngeal, laryngeal)
  43. Which type of occlusion occurs when the mandible is protruded? (Prognathic jaw)
    Mesiocclusion (class III)
  44. Which type of occlusion occurs when the mandible is retracted? (overject)
    Distocclusion (Class II)
  45. Which type of occlusion is the normal occlusion relationship in which the upper arch overlaps the lower one in front?
    Neutrocclusion (Class I)
  46. When there are problems in upper and lower dental arch position and tooth relationships, what is this called?
  47. A band of connective tissue joining the inferior tongue and the mandible is called what?
    Lingual frenulum (or frenum)
  48. What are the various part/sections of the tongue?
    The Apex (tip), The blade (posterior to the apex), front (part below the hard palate), back (part below the soft palate, dorsum (broad superior surface), body (major mass), Root (attaches to hyoid extends along pharynx). The median fibrous septum divides tongue in left/right portions.
  49. The velum at rest ____ _____ into the pharynx.
    During production of consanants the velum is _______.
    During production of nasals the velum is ______.
    • hangs down
    • raised
    • lowered
  50. Interacting in a complex fashion to produce the rapid, delicate articluations of speech and non speech activity is the role of which muscles of the tongue?
    Intrinsic muscles
  51. Moving the tongue as a unit and getting the tongue into position for articulation is the role of which muscles of the tongue?
    Extrinsic muscles
  52. Describe how the four valves (lingual,labial,velar,laryngeal) act as valves of the oral cavity?
    • Labial (the lips open and close)
    • Lingual (tongue comes in contact with other structures)
    • Velopharyngeal valve (velopharyngeal port opens/closes)
    • Laryngeal valve (vocal folds open and close)
  53. Pairs of consonants that differ only in voicing are called what?
  54. Are all vowels voiced?
  55. Which language has more vowels, English or Spanish?
  56. The vocal tract of chimps is ___ than the vocal tract of humans.
    A. shorter
    B. longer
    C. pinker
    D. hairier
    A. shorter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Compared to our ancestral species, the length of the vocal tract in modern humans has _______.
    A. become shorter
    B. become longer
    C. not changed
    D. all of the above
    B. become longer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. The length of the vocal tract in men is _____ than the length of the vocal tract in women.
    A. pinker
    B. longer
    C. hairier
    D. shorter
    B. longer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Compared to adults, a child's vocal tract is _____.
    A. shorter
    B. pinker
    C. hairier
    D. longer
    A. Shorter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Vowel durations in dysarthric speakers are ______ than normal speakers.
  61. These pathways transmit information from sensory receptors towards the CNS.
    Afferent (Sensory)
  62. These pathways transmit information from the CNS towards muscles and glands.
    Efferent (Motor)
  63. The ___ the nerve, the more heavily it is myelinated. (larger or smaller).
  64. The conduction rate in myelinated nerves is _____ than non-myelinated nerves. (faster or slower)
  65. This structure consists of four cavities of the brain which produce cerebrospinal fluid.
  66. Cerebrospinal fluid reduces the weight of the brain. True or False.
  67. Does grey matter form the outer covering of the brain?
    Yes. The outermost layer of the brain (cortex) is grey matter.
  68. Does grey matter form the outer covering of the spinal cord?
    No. The spinal cord has white matter on the outside and grey matter on the inside.
  69. Which brain lobe contains Broca's area?
    Frontal Lobe: 1/3 of cortex; language and speech; most motor functions.
  70. Which brain lobe contains Wernicke's area?
    Temporal Lobe: important for understanding; receives info from ear and auditory nerve.
  71. The cranial nerves originate from the ____.
    • Brainstem; the site of many reflexes involved in respiration, body temp, heartrate, swallowing, digestion.
    • Made up of the Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla.
  72. The spinal nerves originate from the ______.
    Spinal Cord
  73. The cerebral cortex exerts ________ control of movement. (contralateral or ipsilateral)
  74. The cerebellum exerts ________ control of movement.
    (contralateral or ipsilateral)
  75. This structure governs balance, posture, background muscle tone, and the coordination of voluntary movements.
  76. This structure controls many high level reflexes such as respiration and swallowing.
  77. This section of the brainstem mediates many reflexes such as coughing, sneezing, and vomiting.
  78. How has brain imaging helped our understanding of stuttering?
    • May be some kind of neurological dysfunction.
    • Cerebral dominance
    • Complex network of neural structures malfunction
    • Dopamine levels
  79. How has brain imaging helpe our understanding of Parkinson's Disease?
    The loss of dopamine in the substantia nigra of the basal nuclei can be detected with brain imaging.
  80. How has brain imaging helped our understanding of multiple sclerosis?
    Continued MRI imaging can detect degrees of demyelinization of upper and lower motor neurons.
  81. How has brain imaging helped our understanding of Alzheimer's disease?
    fMRI is an important tool in diagnosing Alzheimer's before the onset of severe symptoms. fMRI can also be used to measure the effects of medication on memory.