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New Manifest Destiny
This idea was brought up in the 1890s, it said we expand to the Pacific and the Caribbean. Some islands we declared ours peacefully, others we got through war.
This was justified imperialism. It said white people were superior to blacks, it said that it was white people's nature to be superior.
"White Man's Burden"
A poem directed at the US by Rudyard Kupling.
Frederick Jackson Turner
He put forth the Turner Thesis. Turner looked at the 90s census and determined that there was no frontier left. He decided that the ever changing frontier is what makes us Americans. He called it the frontier experience. Turnarians-followers and teachers of Turner.
He wrote, "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History". Argued that you have to have a great navy to be a great nation, you must have naval power. Said that you need to have islands and places to stop and refuel and get fresh food and water. (Economic Reason's as well, trade).
Venezuelan Boundary Dispute, 1895
Great Britian claimed this territory as British Guiana, but Venezuela seen this as their territory. Gold is discovered in this disputed region. The US comes into the dispute and says we are going to determine who really owns the land. Our fear of Britian taking over a new colony led us to give most of the gold to GB. (Monroe Doctrine Violation).
In 1895, led Americans and pushed Queen Liliuokalani out of power. This was not an act of government it was just Americans acting on their own. Cleveland is opposed to this. Then in 1898 we will annex Hawaii. We feared that if we didn't get it the Spanish would.
Cuba was a colony of Spain. The Cubans had faught many wars of independence against the Spanish, but always failed. In 1895, the Cubans rise up in revolution against their leaders. American press reporters report that there are concentration camps in Cuba.
One of the reporter's that reported that concentration camps were in cuba. Yellow Journalist.
William Randolph Hearst
Yellow Journalist, he sent an illustrator to Cuba. Hearst said if you furnish the pictures, I'll furnish the War.
Journalism that is not entirely true, it stretched the truth.
DeLome is the Spanish minister of the US. He sent a letter back to Spain that said McKinley was a 'would be' politician. This was supposed to be a secret but Hearst got a hold of this somehow and published it. DeLome was forced to resign.
"Remember the Maine....."
This was our battle cry after the USS Maine mysteriously blew up. It happened in Havana harbor and 260 American sailors were killed in this incident. We jumped to the conclusion that the Cubans blew up our ship and Americans start saying "Remember the Maine, to Hell With Spain". Amercians now demanded war with Spain. Congress declares war April, 1898. (Spanish American War).
This was an amendment that was put onto the Declaration of War. The purpose of the war was not to take Cuba, this was basically a war to help Cuba. War ends by August, very few casualties. There were ten times more deaths due to diseases than battles. 'A Splendid Little War'.
He said "Get them damn Yakees boys!!"
Trained in texas, made up of cowboys and ivy league people. TR was 2nd in command here. They were the first to go on the ships to Cuba, they won a fist fight to get the honor. They let their horses off the ship thinking they would swim to shore, but they didn't.
He was the assisstant secretary of navy. He ran the navy basically. TR sends word to George Dewey (Pacific Fleet Commander) to go after the Philippines. They then went into Manila Bay (capital of the Philippines) and attacked the Spanish ships there with the order from Dewey to an officer. We dominated the Spanish fleet. We took the Philippines and Dewey becomes a national hero. This was also known as The Battle of Manila.
Richmond P. Hobson
He was commander of the ship that was sunk in front of the Harbor of Santiago. It was sunk ensuring that the Spanish Fleet would be trapped in the harbor so that our ships could get around Cuba and destroy their ships when we got there. Hobson was POW.
Battle of San Juan Hill
This battle actually took place on a hill named Kettle Hill. TR led the Rough Riders in a charge up this hill. We displaced the Spanish and won the battle, eventually leading to the end of the war. We take Puerto Rico while fighting in Cuba, without any opposition.
Treaty of Paris, 1898
- Cuba gains independence.
- Spain cedes over to US, Puerto Rico and Guam.
- They also cede over to US, the Philippine islands and in return we give them 20$ million.
- McKinley justified the treaty as our responsibility to help them and Christianize them.
Election of 1900
- Rep: McKinley
- Dem: Bryan
- McKinley's VP was TR
- McKinley wins again
The cases involving governing our island possessions.
Alaska & Hawaii, they are now a part of the US and so all the constitutional gaurantees will go there, and they eventually become states.
These belong to us, but are not a part of us. It is subject to special legislative treatment. Fundamental rights go to these places, but otherwise we will govern them differently. Flexible.
William Crawford Gorgas
US Surgeon General, from Alabama. He went to Cuba and they found out how the certain mosquito was born and found out how the disease develops.
- 1901, This was for the Cuban Constitution and for the treaty. It said that Cuba must not sign a treaty that would impair her independence. We can interfere Cuban Affairs to guarantee Cuban independence. They must not contract debt that it will not be able to pay. They must sell or lease us land for a military base. It's called Guantanamo Bay, the marines call it Gitmo.
- In 1934, we dismiss everything about the Platt amendment except the military base.
Leader of the insurgent against America, hates America. A savage war for peace.
- 1. Caribbean
- Puerto Rico
- Cuba (independent republic)
- 2. Pacific
- Alaska (1867)
- 50 islands in between Hawaii and Soma