Clin Lab-Bone Marrow

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Clin Lab-Bone Marrow
2012-03-12 22:14:22
veterinary clinical tests blood urine fecal

Bone Marrow
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  1. ... is tissue enclosed by cortical and cancellous bone consitsting mostly of hematopoietic cells, adipose tissue and supportive tissue
    bone marrow is defined as ...?
  2. What is the bone marrow type found in a young animals?
    red bone marrow is found in which kinds of animals?
  3. What bone marrow type is found in an geriatric animals?
    yellow bone marrow is found in which type of animals?
  4. Which cells are precursors to blood cells found in blood or tissue?
    hematopoietic cells are defined as ..
  5. Hematopoietic cells proliferate and mature into which cell types (3 lineages)?
    • 1- erthrocyte lineage
    • 2- leukocyte lineage
    • 3- megakaryocyte lineage
  6. What do we do when unexplained hematologic abnormalities can not be identified by examination of blood?
    A bone marrow aspirate is performed when ...
  7. What kind of test is done to the following types of conditions: non-regenerative anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, gammopathy, suspicion of neoplastic disease, in horses to determine if anemia is regenerative.
    A bone marrow aspirate is done under which circumstances? (6)
  8. Marrow aspirates from the ribs and sternum of horses with clotting disorders have resulted in death because of _a_ or _b_
    a-hemothorax or b-cardiac tamponade occurs because marrow aspirates were taken from the ribs and sternum of horses with ... disorders.
  9. Hemorrhage can usually be prevented in thrombocytopenic animals by ...?
    applying pressure to the aspiration site for several minutes can prevent ... in thrombocytopenic animals
  10. Name the (2) bone marrow aspiration sites for dogs
    • 1- iliac crest
    • 2- proximal femur trochanteric fossa
    • are two places we use as aspiration sites in which animal?
  11. Name (2) bone marrow aspiration sites for cats
    • 1- proximal femur
    • 2- proximal humerus
    • are two places we use as aspiration sites in which animal?
  12. Name (3) bone marrow aspirate site in horse, cattle, and camelids.
    • 1- iliium
    • 2- ribs
    • 3- sternum
    • are three places we use as aspiration sites in which animal?
  13. If general anesthesia and sedation can not be used, we must use a _a_ and apply it as deep as the _b_ and _c_
    • a- local anesthetic
    • b- subcutis
    • c- periosteum
  14. Bone aspirations of large amounts may result in ...
    Contaminating marrow with blood may occur if ...
  15. Most immature cells that are recognizable in the erythroid series are called ...
    rubriblast are defined as ...
  16. ... is the next stage to rubriblast when cytoplasm is more abundant and more blue in the erythroid series
    prorubricyte is defined as ...
  17. ... is the most mature stage of maturation in which mitosis can occur in the erythroid series.
    rubricyte is defined as ...
  18. ... is the most mature cell of erythroid series that still contains a nucleus
    metarubricyte is defined as ...
  19. A ... is a nucleated erythrocyte blue or pink in color and larger than its mature form
    define a polychromatophilic erythrocyte
  20. Point at maturation when cells become smaller and nuclei shrinks and chromatin aggregates,cytoplasm turns orange in color as hemoglobin increases. This cell is called a ...
    erythrocytes are defined as ...
  21. Reticulocytes and erythrocytes migrate into ... of bone marrow before he goes into peripheral blood.
    venous sinouses house which cell types (2) before being able to go into peripheral blood?
  22. How long does it take stems cells to release rbcs?
    It takes the Stem cells 3-5 days to do what?
  23. The kidneys will release ... in response to hypoxia.
    EPO will be released in response to which condition of the blood?
  24. ... is a hormone that stimulates stem cell differentiation into rubriblast. (erythroid lineage)
    EPO stimulates stem cell differentiation into which cell/ lineage?
  25. 3 other hormones that affect erythropoiesis are ...
    • 1- androgens
    • 2- estrogens
    • 3- thyroid hormone
    • all affect which hormone?
  26. How does Androgen affects erythropoiesis?
    Which hormone promotes erythropoiesis?
  27. How does Estrogen affect erythropoiesis?
    Which hormone inhibits erthyropoiesis?
  28. How does Thyroid hormone affect erythropoiesis?
    Which hormone promotes erythropoiesis?
  29. What is the category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm?
    granulocytes are characterized by ...?
  30. What is an alternative name for granulocytes?
    polymorphonuclear leukocytes are also referred to as ...?
  31. The Wright stain distinguishes the (3) granulocytes which are ...
    • Which stain distinguishes these granulocytes?
    • 1- neutrophils
    • 2- eosinophils
    • 3- basophils
  32. What is the earliest recognizable myeloid clell is the myeloblast without granules?
    myeloblasts are defined as ...
  33. Which cell is slightly larger thean the myeloblast, with a central or eccentric nucleus, with granules?
    progranulocyte is defined as ...
  34. Which cell is smaller and is the last maturation stage in which mitosis can occur, with primary granules replaced by secondary granules?
    myelocytes are defined as ...?
  35. ... are kidney-shaped indented nuclei, with secondary granules
    metamyelocyte are defined as ...?
  36. ... is a smaller U-shaped or has a deeply indented nucleus, with secondary granules.
    band granulocytes are defined as ...?
  37. A ... has a lobulated or markedly constricted nuclei, with secondary granules
    segmented granulocyte is defined as ...
  38. Which cell is a large multinucleated cells and their cytoplasmic fragments become platelets which are important in clotting process
  39. List the Megakaryocyte series from immature to mature cell types:
    a- megakaryocyte
    b- promegakaryocyte
    c- megakaryoblast
    • c- megakaryoblast
    • b- promegakaryocyte
    • a- megakaryocyte
  40. Where can you find small lymphocytes?
    peripheral blood
  41. Name differentiated lymphocytes that produces immunoglobin
    plasma cells
  42. presence of lymphoblast in the bone marrow is indication of ... disorders
  43. Which cell type derives from monocytes?
  44. which cells are large multinucleated cells similar to megakaryocytes but the nuclei is separated which specialize in function of lysis of bone?
  45. Which are easily recognized in bone marrow and although rarely observed they normally present at a very low concentration?
    mast cells
  46. Which cells are seen infrequently because they dont exfoliate easily?
    fibrocytes and fibroblast
  47. The term transient means ...
    usually will correct itself on its own
  48. Name (3) possible causes of reversible stem cell injuries
    injury by drugs, viruses, chemicals
  49. What may be the lab findings for reversible stem cell injuries?
    • 1- neutropenia
    • 2- thrombocytopenia
    • 3- non-regenerative anemia if it last for longer than (2 weeks)
  50. Name possible causes of Irreversible stem cell injury
    • 1- FeLV in cats
    • 2- Chemicals
    • 3- Radiation
  51. Name the TYPES of Irreversible Stem Cell injury
    • 1- Aplasia or Hypoplasia (no or under production)
    • 2- Myelodysplasia or Dysplasic production
    • 3- Myeloproliferative Dz or Neoplastic production
  52. Define Aplasia
    the lack of production of cells
  53. Define Hypoplasia
    The insufficient production of cells
  54. Define myelodysplasia
    Dysplastic production of abnormal widespread production throughout bone marrow
  55. define myeloproliferative dz
    neoplastic production or cancerous rapid cell division
  56. Name a contagious cancer in human
    what is transmissible venarian tumor in animals
  57. define aplasia
    what term do we use to describe hypocellular to acellular marrow
  58. what defines pancytopenia?
    what is the term to describe the occurence of neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia?
  59. Most cases of Red blood cell aplasia in dogs are most likely caused by ...?
    Most cases of Red blood cell aplasia in (which animal?) are most likely caused by a immune mediated disorder.
  60. leukemia is otherwise referred to as (2 classifications)
    • 1- myeloproliferative disorder
    • 2- lymphoproliferative disorder
    • are both referred to as ...
  61. ... is the neoplastic proliferation of hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow and is define by neoplastic cells in the peripheral blood or bone marrow
    define Leukemia
  62. lymphoproliferative disorders can also be referred to as ...
    Lymphoma may also be known as ...
  63. ... is when neoplasms derive from cells normally produced in the bone marrow
    define myeloproliferative neoplasia
  64. An abnormal new growth of tissue that grows by cellular proliferation more rapidly than normal, continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease, shows partial or complete lack of structural organization and functional coordination with the normal tissue, and usually forms a distinct mass of tissue which may be either benign or malignant is known as ...?
    what is neoplasm?
  65. myeloproliferation includes the neoplastic proliferation of which cells? (4)
    • 1- erythrocytes
    • 2- granulocytes
    • 3- monocytes
    • 4- megakaryocytes
  66. ... are neoplasms derived from lymphocytes or plasma cells
    define lymphoproliferative neoplasia
  67. name leukemia classifications (2)
    Chronic and Acute Leukemia
  68. Acute or Chronic Leukemia?
    ... is characterized by infiltration and often replaced by marrow by blast cells which proliferate but do not mature or function in any way useful.
    Acute Leukemia
  69. Acute or Chronic Leukemia?
    ... is when death may occur within days to weeks after the onset of clinical disease if treatment is not given or is unsuccesssful.
    Acute Leukemia
  70. Acute or Chronic Leukemia?
    ... is characterized by some infiltration of the marrow but the malignant cells are mor likely to mature partially or completely and retain some or all of their function.
    Chronic Leukemia
  71. Acute or Chronic Leukemia?
    Which has a better prognosis?
    Chronic Leukemia
  72. Acute or Chronic Leukemia?
    When any hematopoietic cell line can be involved and progression of disease is rapid.
    Acute Leukemia
  73. Acute or Chronic Leukemia?
    When the course in indolent and affected individuals often survive for month to years sometimes with minimal or no treatment.
    Chronic Leukemia
  74. What condition may develop in response to various types of marrow injury?
    Myelofibrosis may develop in response to ...?
  75. Any agent that is directly toxic to hematopoietic cells may damage the microvasculature of the marrow and may cause (2)?
    • 1- Necrosis
    • 2- Subsequent Fibrosis