History Midterm

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History Midterm
2012-03-07 16:04:39
History Midterm

History Midterm
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  1. Dawes Severalty Act
  2. 1887 was the culmination of decades of policy work designed to free up western land for white settlers and acculturate American Indians to American values and practices. The Dawes Severalty Act broke the land of most remaining reservations into parcels to be farmed by individual American Indians or nuclear American Indian families. Partitioning Indian land in this manner, Congress hoped, would force native peoples to give up communal living and to adopt American farming practices. Eventually, policy makers reasoned, American Indians would embrace all American cultural norms and become integrated into U.S. society.
  3. 14th Amendment
  4. It was primarily concerned with details of reintegrating the southern states after the Civil War and defining some of the rights of recently freed slaves.
  5. American Federation of Labor
  6. emphasized organization of skilled workers into craft unions (composed of a single occupation such as painters or electricians), as opposed to industrial unions (where all the workers in the automobile or steel industry would belong to one union)
  7. Industrial Workers of the World
  8. embraced and organized both skilled and unskilled workers within particular industries. Formed in 1905 partly in opposition to the craft unionism of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), it was a democratic union with a mix of radical anti-capitalist politics.
  9. Populist Party
  10. A U.S. political party that sought to represent the interests of farmers and laborers in the 1890s, advocating increased currency issue, free coinage of gold and silver, public ownership of railroads, and a graduated federal income tax
  11. Pullman Strike
  12. It occurred because of the way George Pullman treated his workers. The Pullman Strike was important because it was the first time a federal injunction had ever been used to break up a strike.
  13. The Jungle
  14. written with the intention of portraying the life of the immigrant in the United States, but readers were more concerned with the large portion of the book pertaining to the corruption of the American meatpacking industry during the early 20th century.
  15. Ghost Dance
  16. a religious dance of certain North American Indians, connected with a political movement (from about
  17. Gilded Age
  18. in the US, a period c 1870 to 1898 (or World War I), which was marked by the growth of industry and wealth which supported materialism and political corruption
  19. Progressivism
  20. began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in cities with settlement workers and reformers who were interested in helping those facing harsh conditions at home and at work. The reformers spoke out about the need for laws regulating tenement housing and child labor. They also called for better working conditions for women
  21. Knights of Labor
  22. promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman, rejected Socialism and radicalism, demanded the eight-hour day, and promoted the producers ethic of republicanism. In some cases it acted as a labor union, negotiating with employers, but it was never well organized, and after a rapid expansion in the mid-1880s, it suddenly lost its new members and became a small operation again
  23. The Gospel of Wealth
  24. is an essay written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 that described the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich. The central thesis of Carnegie's essay was the peril of allowing large sums of money to be passed into the hands of persons or organizations ill-equipped mentally or emotionally to cope with them. As a result, the wealthy entrepreneur must assume the responsibility of distributing his fortune in a way that it will be put to good use, and not wasted on frivolous expenditure. In this he represented a captain of industry who had risen to power by his own hand and refused to worship
  25. Standard Oil
  26. was a predominant American integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Found by J.D. Rockefeller.
  27. Andrew Carnegie
  28. was a Scottish-American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He was also one of the most important philanthropists of his era
  29. Booker T. Washington
  30. Representative of the last generation of black American leaders born in slavery, he spoke on behalf of the large majority of blacks who lived in the South but had lost their ability to vote through southern legislatures
  31. W.E.B. DuBois
  32. was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909
  33. Eugene Debs
  34. was instrumental in the founding of the American Railway Union (ARU), the nation's first industrial union.
  35. Sharecropping and tenant farming
  36. is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land. This was popular with newly freed slaves
  37. Yellow Journalism
  38. is a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers
  39. Muckrakers
  40. were used to refer in a general sense to a writer who investigates and publishes truthful reports
  41. The Pure Food and Drug Act
  42. is a United States federal law that provided federal inspection of meat products and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products and poisonous patent medicines
  43. Meat Inspection Act
  44. was a United States Congress Act that worked to prevent adulterated or misbranded meat and meat products from being sold as food and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions
  45. Sinking of the Maine
  46. The U.S. thought that the Maine was fired upon from Cuba and gave the U.S. a reason to go against the Spanish forces in Cuba during the Spanish-American War
  47. 1898 Treaty of Paris
    Signaled the end of the Spain-American war.
  48. Platt Amendment
  49. stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba at the end of the Spanish-American War and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations. The Amendment ensured U.S. involvement in Cuban affairs and gave legal standing (in U.S law) to U.S. claims to certain territories on the island including Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
  50. Zimmerman Telegram
  51. was a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the Germany to Mexico to make war against the United States. The proposal was intercepted by British intelligence. Revelation of the Telegram angered Americans and led in part to a United States declaration of war on Germany
  52. Article 10 of the League Covenant
  53. was an attempt to guarantee the territorial integrity and political independence of member states against aggression
  54. Treaty of Versailles
  55. this marked the end of WWI and made it so Germany had to claim responsibility for the war and pay back nations for the damages
  56. Palmer Raids
  57. were attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States