US HIS 202 2.(The Progressive Era: Beginning)
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New Immigrants - Italians, Slavs, Jews
Between 1900-1914, 13 million new immigrants enter the US. (1914-WW1) from Italy, Russia, Poland, Austria-Hungary and 80% came from these 4 places. Not protestant for the most part. They come to be part of the factory and city life. Birmingham was really the only place in the South they came to.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
This was not a sweatshop. It was a factory where mostly jewish women worked sewing. A fire was contracted and the door was blocked, the ladders were said to only go up to the 7th floor, they were on the 8th. 148 women died and lots jumped out of the building.
Progressivism was urban, not rural. These were the urban middle class. They believe that the federal government should do more.
These were people who were crusading journalists/writers who found a problem or abuse and writes a book about it, shining the light on it so people can see it and they can fix it. TR first used this term and it meant that they only looked down, and ordinarily didn't look up. Concentrated on the bad not the good.
Ida Tarbell, History of Standard Oil Company
She was the daughter of an oil man. Tarbell had an ax to grind on them so she wrote about the 'bad' of oil company's. A lot of what people come to believe about Rockefeller is false.
Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities
This was about the corruption of city government, the corruption between government and business. He said corruption was almost always brought up by the government, not by the business, which is opposite of what most people thought. Said a little corruption is a good thing, just don't let it get out of hand.
Jacob Riis, How the Older Half Lives
This was about the slums of New York City, and about the immigrants and their living conditions.
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
This was the one that had the greatest impact, 1906. He takes a fictional family from Lithuiwani and puts them in Chicago. Anything bad that could happen to them, happens. The head of the family when working in the Chicago Meat Packing Plant, sees a lot of nasty and disgusting things. This lead directly to major national federal reform.
- TR entered the presidency by accident. He was the VP of McKinley and he got shot which made TR the president in 1901.
- Youngest president we've ever had (42).
- He was the Police Commissioner of NYC.
- He learned that if you wanted big news you should do it on Sunday afternoon for a big play in the Monday paper.
- Won the election of 1904. In 1902 he goes after a trust, the Northern Security Company (thought it violated the Sherman Antitrust Act.)
- He wanted to be known as a "trust buster".
- He was really going after J.P. Morgan, the man behind it. Morgan ends up making more money after TR breaks up this large company.
TR said that Americans should get a fair deal.
"Speak Softly but carry a big stick"
TR said this often, he loved being the center of attention.
1902 Coal Strike
The United Mine Workers wanted shorter hours and more pay. This was the first time that the public sided with the strikers. TR wanted to get involved but the companies said no these are our mines, so TR said that if you don't give us the oil that then I will send the military in to give the coal to the people. Both sides end up getting a little bit of what they wanted. Coal prices go up.
1903, This was a RR regulatory act, it forbade the RR to give rebates to large shippers, the RR's did not mind this at all.
Election of 1904
- Rep: Roosevelt
- Dem: Alton B. Parker
- This was a very dull campaign.
- Parker accused TR of getting big money from big buinesses, true, but couldn't be proven.
- TR won handily, biggest margin of victory up until that time, he had all parts of the country except the "solid south"
- TR goes after big business as soon as he gets into office.
- Robert La Follett- was an ultra progressive and made TR look conservative, which is false.
Hepburn Act 1906
This caused for more RR regulations, getting more room to regulate RR's.
Meat Inspection Act 1906
This put the federal government in the front seat to inspect meat.
Pure Food and Drug Act 1906
This put the federal government in the business to regulate food and drugs.
Panic of 1907
- People blamed TR for this, but he wasn't to blame.
- This caused TR to allow JP Morgan and US Steel to absorb its biggest souther competitor. (TCI) Birmingham. In 1907
- TCI started in Tennessee.
- Birmingham is the only place where all 3 ingredients occur naturally. (coal, limestone, iron).
- US makes the price of TCI's steel go up to match Pittsburg's cost.
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