med terms

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med terms
2010-04-12 22:30:46

medical terms
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  1. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
    tasteless, odorless, colorless gas produced by the body cells during the metabolic process. It is a product of cell respiration and is carried by the blood to the lungs and exhaled
  2. cartilage
    tough, elastic connective tissue that is more rigid than ligaments but less dense than bone. The tip of the nose and outer ear are composed of cartilage
  3. cilia
    any hairlike structure. Cilia in the trachea move particles upward to the pharynx, where they are removed by coughing, sneezing, or swallowing. This method is called the cilia escalator. Habitual smoking destroys the cilia escalator.
  4. diffuse
    moving or spreading out of a substance at random, rather than by chemical reaction or application of external forces
  5. homeostasis
    homeo- same, alike
    -stasis: standing still
    state in which the regulatory mechanisms of the body maintain a constant internal environment despite changes in the external environment. The regulatory mechanisms of the body control temperature, acidity, and the concentration of salt, food and waste products
  6. mucous membrane
    muc- mucus
    -ous: pertaining to
    moist tissue layer lining hollow organs and cavities of the body that open to the environment; also called mucosa
  7. Oxygen (O2)
    tasteless, odorless, colorless gas essential for human respiration. O2 makes up about one-fifth (by volume) of the atmosphere
  8. pH
    symbol that indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance. Increasing acidity is a number less than 7; increasing alkalinity is a number greater than 7, with 7 being neutral
  9. septum
    wall dividing two cavities, such as the nasal septum, which separates the two nostrils
  10. serous membrane
    ser- serum
    -ous: pertaining to
    thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities, the cells of which secrete a fluid that keeps the membranes moist; also called serose
  11. nas/o
    • (Upper Respiratory Tract) meaning nose
    • Ex: nas/al- pertaining to the nose
  12. rhin/o
    • (Upper Respiratory Tract) meaning nose
    • Ex: rhin/o/plasty- surgical repair of the nose
  13. sept/o
    • (Upper Respiratory Tract) meaning septum
    • Ex: sept/o/plasty- surgical repair of the septum
  14. sinus/o
    • (Upper Respiratory Tract) menaing sinus, cavity
    • Ex: sinus/o/tomy- incision of any of the sinuses
  15. adenoid/o
    • (Upper Respiratory Tract) meaning adenoids
    • Ex: adenoid/ectomy: excision of the adenoids
  16. tonsill/o
    • (Upper Respiratory Tract) meaning tonsils
    • Ex: peri/tonsill/ar- pertaining to (the area) around the tonsils
  17. pharyng/o
    • (Upper Respiratory Tract) meaning pharynx (throat)
    • Ex: pharyng/o/scope- instrument used for examining the pharynx
  18. epiglott/o
    • (Upper Respiratory Tract) meaning epiglottis
    • Ex: epiglott/itis- inflammation of the epiglottis
  19. laryng/o
    • (Upper Respiratory Tract) meaning larynx (voicebox)
    • Ex: laryng/o/plegia- paralysis of the (vocal cords and) larynx
  20. trache/o
    • (Upper Respiratory Tract) meaning trachea (windpipe)
    • Ex: trache/o/plasty- surgical repair of the trachea
  21. bronchi/o
    • (Lower Respiratory Tract) meaning bronchus
    • Ex: bronchi/ectasis- dilation of (one or more) bronchi
  22. bronch/o
    • (Lower Respiratory Tract) meaning bronchus
    • Ex: bronch/o/scope- instrument for examining the bronchus or bronchi
  23. bronchiol/o
    • (Lower Respiratory Tract) meaning bronchiole
    • Ex: bronchiol/iti- inflammation of the bronchioles
  24. alveol/o
    • (Lower Respiratory Tract) meaning alveolus; air sac
    • Ex: alveol/ar- pertaining to the alveoli
  25. pleur/o
    • (Lower Respiratory Tract) meaning pleura
    • Ex: pleur/o/centesis- surgical puncture of the pleura cavity; also called thoracocentesis or thoracentesis
  26. pneum/o
    • (Lower Respiratory Tract) meaning air; lung
    • Ex: pneum/ectomy- excision of (all or part of) a the lung
  27. pneumon/o
    • (Lower Respiratory Tract) meaning air; lung
    • Ex: pneumon/ia- condition of inflammation of the lungs
  28. pulmon/o
    • (Lower Respiratory Tract) meaning lung
    • Ex: pulmon/ollogist- specialist in the study (and treatment) of lungs (and respiratory diseases)
  29. anthrac/o
    • coal; coal dust
    • Ex: anthrac/osis- abnormal condition of coal dust (in the lungs)
  30. atel/o
    • incomplete; imperfect
    • Ex: atel/ectasis- incomplete expansion of the lung; also called airless lung or collapsed lung
  31. coni/o
    • dust
    • Ex: pneum/o/coni/osis- condition of dust in the lungs
  32. cyan/o
    • blue
    • Ex: cyan/osis- abnormal condition of blueness
  33. lob/o
    • lobe
    • Ex: lob/ectomy- exicision of a lobe
  34. orth/o
    • straight
    • Ex: orth/o/pnea- breathing in a straight (or upright position)
  35. ox/i
    • oxygen
    • Ex: ox/i/meter- instrument used for measuring oxygen
  36. ox/o
    • oxygen
    • Ex: hyp/ox/emia- deficiency of oxygen in the blood
  37. pector/o
    • chest
    • Ex: pector/algia- pain in the chest; also called thoracalgia, thoracdynia, pectordynia
  38. steth/o
    • chest
    • Ex: steth/o/scope- instrument used for examining the chest
  39. thorac/o
    • chest
    • Ex: thorac/o/pathy- disease of the chest
  40. phren/o
    • diaphragm; mind
    • Ex: phren/o/spasm- involuntary contraction of the diaphragm
  41. spir/o
    • breathe
    • Ex: spir/o/meter- instrument for measuring breathing
  42. -capnia
    • carbon dioxide
    • Ex: hyper/capnia- excessive CO2
  43. -osmia
    • smell
    • Ex: an/osmia- without (the sense of) smell
  44. -phonia
    • voice
    • Ex: dys/phania- bad (impaired) voice quality
  45. -pnea
    • breathing
    • Ex: a/pnea- not breathing
  46. -ptyis
    • spitting
    • Ex: hem/o/ptysis- (coughing up or) spitting of blood
  47. -thorax
    • chest
    • Ex: py/o/thorax- pus in the chest (cavity); also called empyema
  48. brady-
    • slow
    • Ex: brady/pnea- slow breathing
  49. dys-
    • bad; painful; difficult
    • Ex: dys/pnea- difficult breathing
  50. eu-
    • good; normal
    • Ex: eu/pnea- normal breathing
  51. tachy-
    • rapid
    • Ex: tachy/pnea- rapid breathing
  52. acidosis
    excessive acidity of body fluids. Respiratory acidosis is commonly associated with pulmonary insufficiency and the subsequent retention of carbon dioxide
  53. anosmia
    absence of the sense of smell. Anosmia usually occurs as a temporary condition resulting from an upper respiratroy infection or a condition that causes intranasal swelling
  54. apnea
    temporary loss of breathing. There are three types of apnea: obstructive (enlarged tonsils and adenoids), central (failure of the brain to transmit impulses for breathing), and mixed (combination of obstructive and central apnea)
  55. asphyxia
    a-: without, not
    -sphyxia: pulse
    condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen. Some common causes of asphyxia are drowning, electric shock, lodging of a foreign body in the respiratory tract, inhation of toxic smoke, and poisoning
  56. atelectasis
    collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affect all or part of a lung. Atelectasis is a potential complication of some surgical procedures, especially those of the chest because breathing is commonly shallow after surgery to avoid pain from the surgical incision. In fetal atelectasis, the lungs fail to expand normally at birth.
  57. cheyne-Stokes respiration
    repeated breathung pattern characterized by fluctuation in the depth of respiration, first deeply, then shallow, then not at all. Cheyne-Stokes respirations are usually caused by diseases that affect the repiratory centers of the brain (such as heart failure ad brain damage)
  58. compliance
    ease with which lung can be stretched. Low compliance means lungs are less elastic; therefore, more effort is required to inflate the lungs
  59. coryza
    head cold; upper respiratory infection (URI)
  60. crackle
    abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, caused by exudates, spasms, hyperplasia, or when air enters moisture-filled alveoli; also called rale
  61. croup
    common childhood condition involving inflammation of the larynx, trachea, bronchial passages, and sometimes, lungs. Signs and symptoms include a resonant, barking cough with suffocative, difficult breathing; laryngeal spasms, and, sometimes, the narrowing of the top of the air passages.
  62. deviated nasal septum
    displacement of cartilage dividing nostrils
  63. epilogittitis
    severe, life-threatening infection of the epiglottis and supraglottic structures that occurs most commonly in children between 2 and 12 years of age. Signs and symptoms of epiglottitis include fever, dysphagia, inspiratory stridor, and severe respiratory distress. Intubation or tracheostomy may be required to open the obstructed airway.
  64. epistaxis
    nosebleed; nasal hemorrhage
  65. finger clubbing
    enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, commonly associated with pulmonary disease
  66. hypoxemia
    defieciency of oxygen in the blood. Hypoxemia is usually a sign of repiratory impairment.
  67. hypoxia
    defiency of oxygen in the tissues. Hypoxia is usually a sign of repiratory impairment.
  68. pertusis
    acute infectious disease characterized bt a cough that has a "whoop" sound; also called the whopping cough.
  69. pleurisy
    inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by coughing or deep breathing; also called pleuritis
  70. pneumoconiosis
    disease caused by inhaling dust particles, including coal dust (anthracosis), stone dust (chalicosis), iron dust (siderosis), and asbestos particles (asbestosis)
  71. pulmonary edema
    accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli, caused most commonly by heart failure. Excessive fluid in the lungs induces coughing and dyspnea.
  72. pulmonary embolus
    embol: plug
    Blockage in an artery of the lungs caused by a mass of undissolved matter (such as a blood clot, issue, air bubbles, and bacteria)
  73. rhonchus
    abnormal breathe sound heard on auscultation. A rhoncus is described as a course, rattling noise that resembles snoring, commonly suggesting secretions in the larger airways.
  74. stridor
    high-pitched, harsh, adventitious breath sound caused by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway. The presence of stridor requires immediate intervention.
  75. sudden infant death syndrome
    completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently normal, healthy infant, usually less than 12 months of age; also called crib death. The rate of SIDS has decreased more than 30% since parents have been instructed to place babies on their backs for sleeping rather than on their stomachs.
  76. wheeze
    whistling or sighing sound heard on auscultation that results from narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway. Wheezing is a characteristic of asthma, croup, hay fever, obstructive emphysema, and other obstructive respiratory conditions.
  77. mantoux test
    intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen. A positive test suggests a past or present exposure to TB or past TB vaccination. However, the Mantoux test does not diffrentiate between active and inactive infection.
  78. oximetry
    noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of hemoglobin (Hb) saturated with oxygen; also called pulse oximetry. In oximetry, a probe is attached to the patient's finger or ear lobe and linked to a computer that displays the percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen.
  79. polysomnography
    somn/o: sleep
    test of sleep cycles and stages using continuous recordings of brain waves (EEGs), electrical activity of muscles, eye movement (electro-oculogram), respiratory rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, heart rhythm and, sometimes, direct observation of the person during sleep using a video camera.
  80. pulmonary function tests (PFTs)
    multiple tests used to evaluate the ability of the lungs to take in and expel air as well as perform gas exchange across the alveolocapillary membrane.
  81. spirometry
    measurement of ventilatory ability by accessing lung capacity and flow, including the time necessary for exhaling the total volume of inhaled air. A spirometer produces a graphic record for placement in the patient's chart.
  82. bronchoscopy
    visual examination of the bronchi using an endoscope (flexible fiberoptic or rigid) inserted through the nose or mouth or trachea for direct viewing of structures or for projection on a monitor. Attachments on the bronchoscope can be used to suction mucus, remove foreign bodies, collect sputum, or perform biopsy.
  83. laryngoscopy
    visual examination of the larynx to detect tumores, foreign bodies, nerve pr structural injury, or other abnormalties.
  84. mediastinoscopy
    visual examination of the mediastinal structures including the heart, trachea. esophagus, bronchus, thymus, and lymph nodes. the mediastinoscope is inserted through a small incision made above the sternum. The attached camera projects images on a monitor. Additional incisions may be made if nodes are removed or other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures are performed.
  85. arterial blood gas (ABG)
    test that measures partial pressure of oxygen (Po2), carbon dioxide (Pco2), pH (acidity or alkalinity), and bicarbonate level of an arterial blood. ABG analysis evaluates pulmonary gas exhange and helps guide treatment of acid-base imbalances.
  86. sputum culture
    microbial test used to identify disease-causing organisms of the lower respiratory tract, especially those that cause pneumonias.
  87. sweat test
    measurement of the amount of salt (sodium chloride) in sweat. A sweat test is used almost exclusively in children to confirm cystic fibrosis.
  88. throat culture
    test used to identify pathogens, especially group A sreptococci. Untreated streptococci infections may lead to serious secondary complications, including kidney and heart disease.
  89. radiography
    radi/o: radiation; X-ray; radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
    process of producing images using x-ray passed through the body or area and captured on a film.
  90. thoracic (chest) radiography
    Images of the chest taken from anteroposterior (AP) projection, posteroanterior (PA) projection, lateral projection, or a combination of these projections
  91. scan
    imaging procedure that gathers infromation about a specific organ or structure of the body. In some cases, small amounts of injected radionuclide (tracer) are used to enhance images.

    Lung----> nucluear scanning test primarily used to detect pulmonary emboli
  92. aerosol therapy
    lung treatment using various techniques to deliver medication in mist form directly to the lungs or air passageways. Techniques include nebulizers, metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), and dry powder inhalers (DPIs)
  93. lavage
    irrigating or washing out of an orgnam, stomach, bladder, bowel, or body cavity with a stream of water or other fluid
  94. antral
    irrigation of the antrum (maxillary sinus) in chronic or nonresponsive sinusitis
  95. postural drainage
    positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs
  96. pleuroectomy
    excision of part of the pleura., usually the parietal
  97. pneumectomy
    excision of a lung
  98. septoplasty
    surgical repair of a devastated nasal septum usually performed when the septum is encroaching on the breathing passages or nasal structures
  99. thoracentesis
    surgical puncture and drainage of the pleura cavity; also called pleuracentesis or thoracentesis
  100. antihistamines
    • block histamines from binding with histamine receptor sites in tissues
    • Generic and trade names: fexofenadine; loratadine
  101. antitussives
    • relieve or suppress coughing by blocking the cough reflex in the medulla of the brain
    • Generic and trade names: hydrocordone, dextromethorphan
  102. bronchodilators
    • stimulate bronchial muscles to relax, thereby expanding air passages, resulting in increased air flow
    • Generic and trade names: albuterol; salmeterol
  103. corticosteroids
    • act on the immune system by blocking porduction of substances that trigger allergic and inflammatory actions
    • Generic and trade names: beclomethasone dipropionate; triamcinolone
  104. decongestants
    • constrict blood vessels of nasal passages and limit blood flow, which causes swollen tissues to shrink so that air can pass more freely through the passage ways
    • Generic and trade names: oxymetazoline; pseudophedrine
  105. expectorants
    • liquify respiratory secretions so that they are more easily dislodged during coughing episodes
    • Generic and trade names: guaifenesin
  106. Abbreviations
    • ABG- Arterial Blood Gas(es)
    • AFB- acid-fast bacillus (TB organism)
    • AP- anteroposterior
    • ARDS- acute respiratory distress syndrome
    • COPD- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • CPAP- continuous positive airway pressure
  107. Abbreviations continued
    • CPR- cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    • CT- computed tomography
    • CXR- chest x-ray, chest radiograph
    • DPI- dry powder inhalers
    • DPT- diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus
    • EEG- encephalogram, encephalography
  108. Abbreviations continued
    • FVC- forced vital capacity
    • HMD- hyaline membrane disease
    • Hx- history
    • IPPB- intermittent positive-pressure breathing
    • IRDS- infant respiratory distress syndrome
    • MDI- metered dose inhaler
  109. Abbreviations continued
    • MRI- magnetic resonance imaging
    • NMT- nebulized mist treatment
    • PA- posteroanteriot; pernicious anemia
    • PCP- pneumocytis pneumonia; primary care physician; phencylidine (hallucinogen)
    • PFT- pulmonary function test
    • PND- paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
  110. Abbreviations continued
    • RD- respiratory distress
    • RDS- respiratory distress syndrome
    • SaO2- arterial oxygen saturation
    • SOB- shortness of breath
    • T&A- tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
    • TB- tuberculosis
  111. autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    portion of the nervous system that regulates involuntery actions, such as heart rate, digestion, and peristalsis.
  112. leaflet
    thin, flattened structure; term used to describe the leaf-shaped structures that compose a heart valve.
  113. lumen
    tubular space or channel within any organ or structure of the body; space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube
  114. regurgitation
    backflow or ejecting of contents through an opening
  115. sphincter
    circular muscle found in a tubular structure or hollow organ that constricts or dilates to regulate passage of substances through its opening
  116. vasoconstriction
    narrowing of the lumen of a bloos vessel that limits blood flow, usually as a result of diseases, medications, or physiological processes
  117. vasodilation
    widening of the lumen of a blood vessel caused by the relazing of the muscles of the vascular walls
  118. viscosity
    state of being sticky or gummy. A solution that has a high viscosity is relatively thick and flows slowly.
  119. aneurysm/o
    • widened blood vessel
    • Ex: aneurysm/o/rrhaphy- suture of an aneurysm
  120. angi/o
    • vessel (usually blood or lymph)
    • Ex: angi/o/plasty- surgical repair of a vessel
  121. vascul/o
    • vessel (usually blood or lymph)
    • Ex: vascul/itis- inflammation of (blood) vessels
  122. aort/o
    • aorta
    • Ex: aort/o/stenosis- narrowing of the aorta
    • -stenosis- narrowing, stricture
  123. arteri/o
    • artery
    • Ex: arteri/o/rrhexis- rupture of an artery
    • -rrhexis: rupture
  124. arteriol/o
    • arteriole
    • Ex: arteriol/itis- inflammation of an arteriole
  125. atri/o
    • atrium
    • Ex: artri/o/megaly- enlargement of the atrium
  126. ather/o
    • fatty plaque
    • Ex: ather/oma- tumor of fatty plaque
  127. cardi/o
    • heart
    • Ex: cardi/o/megaly- enlargement of the heart
  128. electr/o
    • electricity
    • Ex: electr/o/card/o/gram- record of the electrical (impulses) of the heart
  129. embol/o
    • embolus (plug)
    • Ex: embol/ectomy- removal of an embolus
  130. hemangi/o
    • blood vessel
    • Ex: hemangi/oma- tumor of blood vessels
  131. my/o
    • muscle
    • Ex: my/o/cardi/al- pertaining to heart muscle
  132. phleb/o
    • vein
    • Ex: phleb/ectasis- expansion of a vein
  133. ven/o
    • vein
    • Ex: ven/o/stasis- standing still of (blood in a) vein; also called phlebstasis
  134. scler/o
    • hardening; sclera (white of the eye)
    • Ex: arteri/o/scler/osis- abnormal condition of hardening of the artery
  135. sphygm/o
    • pulse
    • Ex: sphygm/oid- resembling a pulse
  136. sten/o
    • narrowing, stricture
    • Ex: sten/o/tic- pertaining to a narrowing or a stricture
  137. thromb/o
    • blood clot
    • Ex: thromb/o/lysis- destruction of a blood clot
  138. ventricul/o
    • ventricle (of the heart or brain)
    • Ex: ventricul/ar- pertaining to a ventricle (chamber of the heart or brain)
  139. -gram
    • record, writing
    • Ex: arteri/o/gram- record of an artery
  140. -graph
    • instrument used for recording
    • Ex: electr/o/cardi/o/graph- instrument for recording electrical (activity) of the heart
  141. -graphy
    • process of recording
    • Ex: angi/o/graphy- process of recording (an image of) a vessel
  142. -sphyxia
    • pulse
    • Ex: a/sphyxia- without a pulse; also called suffocation
  143. -stenosis
    • narrowing, stricture
    • Ex: aort/o/stenosis- narrowing of the aorta
  144. endo-
    • in, within
    • Ex: endo/vascul/ar- relating to (the area) within a vessel
  145. extra-
    • outside
    • Ex: extra/vascul/ar- relating to the (area) outside a vessel
  146. peri-
    • around
    • Ex: peri/cardi/al- pertaining to (the area) around the heart
  147. trans-
    • across
    • Ex: trans/sept/al- across the septum
  148. aneurysm
    localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery
  149. arrest
    • condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop
    • loss of effective cardiac function, which results in cessation of circulation
    • cessation of the circulation of blood due to ventricular standstill or fibrillation
  150. arrythhmia
    inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm, possibly including a rapid or slow beat or "skipping" a beat; also called dysrhythmia
  151. bruit
    soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action, or both; also called murmur
  152. cardiomyopathy
    any disease or weakening of heart muscle that diminshes cardiac function
  153. catheter
    thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enough to be threaded through a vein, artery, or tubular structure
  154. coarctation
    narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta
  155. deep vein thrombosis
    blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs
  156. ejection fraction (EF)
    calculation of how much blood a ventricle can eject with one contraction
  157. heart failure (HF)
    failure of the heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs
  158. embolus
    mass of undissolved matter (foreign object, air, gas, tissue, thrombus) circulating in blood or lymphatic channels until it becomes lodged in a vessel
  159. fibrillation
    quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contractions
  160. hemostasis
    arrest (stop) of bleeding or circulation
  161. hyperlipidemia
    excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood
  162. hypertension (HTN)
    • common disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic
    • HTN in which there is no identifiable cause; also called essential hypertension
    • HTN that results from an underlying, identifiable, commonly correctable cause
  163. hypertensive heart disease
    any heart disorder caused by prolonged hypertension, including left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrythmias, and heart failure
  164. implantable cardioverter-defribrillator
    implantable battery-powered device that monitors and automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart
  165. infarct
    area of tissue that undergoes necrosis following cessation of blood supply
  166. ischemia
    local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction
  167. mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    common and occasionally serious condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole causing a characteristic murmur heard on auscultation
  168. radioisotope
    chemical radiactive material uses as a tracer to follow a substance through the body or a structure
  169. palpitation
    sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including "thumping", "fluttering", "skipped beats", or a pounding feeling in the chest
  170. patent ductus arteriosus
    failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth, allowing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary (lung) artery
  171. perfusion
    circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ
  172. tetraology of Fallot
    congenital anomaly consisting of four elements: (1) pulmonary artery stenosis; (2) intraventricular septal defect; (3) transposition of the aorta, so that both ventricles empty into the aorta; (4) right ventricular hypertrophy caused by increased workload of the right ventricle
  173. stent
    slendeer or threadlike device used to hold upon vessels, tubes, or obstructed arteries
  174. thrombus
    blood clot that obstructs a vessel
  175. cardiac catheterization (CC)
    passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to prvide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart
  176. electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)
    graphic line recording that shows the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied to the chest, arms, and legs
  177. Holter monitor test
    stress test
    • ECG taken with a small portable recorfing system capable of storing up to 24 hours of ECG tracings
    • ECG that utilizes a radioisotope to evaluate coronary blood flow
    • ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions
  178. cardiac enzyme studies
    blood test that measures troponin T, troponin I, and creatinine kinase (CK-MB)
  179. lipid panel
    series of tests (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, and triglycerides) used to assess risk factors of ischemic heart disease
  180. angiography
    digital subtraction
    • radiographic imaging of the heart and blood vessels after injection of a constrast dye
    • angiography to determine the degree od obstruction of the arteries that supply blood to the heart
    • angiography in which two radiographic images are obtained, the first one without contrast material and the second one after a contrast material has been injected, and then compared by a computer that digitally subtracts (removes) the images of soft tissues, bones, and muscles, leaving only the image of blood vessels with contrast
  181. aortography
    radiological examination of the aorta and its branches following injection of a contrast medium via a catheter
  182. echocardiography (ECHO)
    Doppler ultrasound
    • noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures and produce images of the heart
    • noninvasive adaption of ultrasound technology in which blood flow velocity is assessed in different areas of the heart
  183. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    noninvasive technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field, rather than an x-ray beam, to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images of blood vessels
  184. multiple-gated acquisition (MUGA)
    nuclear proceudure that uses radioactive tracers to produce movie-like images of the structures of the heart, including the myocardium and the mitral and tricuspid valves
  185. phonocardiography
    phon/o: voice
    imaging technique that provides a graphic display of heart sounds and murmurs during the cardiac cycle
  186. scintigraphy
    thallium study (resting)
    • diagnostic test that uses radiation emitted by the body after an injection of radioactive substances to create images of various organs or identify body functions and diseases
    • scintigraphy procedure that uses injected radioactive thallium and records the uptake of the isotope with a gamma camera to produce and image
  187. venography
    radiography of a vein after injection of a contrast medium to detect incomplete filling of a vein, which indicates obstruction
  188. cardioversion
    -version: turning
    procedure to restore normal rhythm of the heart by applying a controlled electrical shock to the exterior of the chest
  189. embolization
    -ization: process (of)
    techniques used to block blood flow to a site by passing a catheter to the area and injecting a synthetic material or medication specially designed to occlude the blood vessel
  190. sclerotherapy
    injection of a chemical irritant (sclerosing agent) into a vein to produce inflammation and fibrosis that destroys the lumen of the vein.
  191. angioplasty
    coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    • procedure that alters a vessel through surgery or dilation of the vessel using a balloon catheter
    • surgical procedure that uses a vessel graft from another part of the body to bypass the blocked part of a coronary artery and restore blood supply to the heart muscle
    • dilation of an occluded vessel using a balloon catheter under fluroscopic guidance
  192. atherectomy
    removal of material from an occluded vessel using a specifically designed catheter fitted with a cutting or grinding device
  193. biopsy
    • removal and examination of a small piece of tissue for diagnostic purposes
    • removal and examination od a segment of an arterial vessel wall to confirm inflammation of the wall or arteritis, a type of vasculitis
  194. catheter ablation
    destruction of conduction tissue of the heart to interrupt the abnormal conductive pathway causing the arrythmia, thus allowing normal heart rhythm to resume
  195. commissurotomy
    surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve, which have fused together at their "commisures" (points of touching)
  196. laser ablation
    procedure used to remove or treat varicose veins
  197. ligation and stripping
    tying a varicose vein (ligation) followed by removal (stripping) of the affected segment
  198. open heart surgery
    surgical procedure performed on or within the exposed heart, usually with the assistance of a heart-lung machine
  199. pericardiocentesis
    puncturing of the pericardium to remove excess fluid from the pericardial sac or to test for protein, sugar, and enzymes or determine the causative organism of pericarditis
  200. thrombolysis
    • destruction of a blood clot using anticlotting agents called clot-busters, such as tissue plasminogen activator
    • infusion of a thrombolytic agent into a vessel to dissolve a blood clot
  201. valvotomy
    incision of a valve to increase the size of the opening; used in treating mitral stenosis
  202. venipuncture
    puncture of a vein by a needle attached to a syringe or catheter to withdraw a specimen of blood; also called phlebotomy
  203. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
    • lower blood pressure by inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I (an inactive enzyme) to angiotensin II (a potent constrictor)
    • Generic and trade names: benazepril; captopril
  204. antiarrhytmics
    • prevent, alleviate, or correct cardiac arrhythmias (dysrrhythmias) by stabilizing the electrical conduction of the heart
    • Generic and trade names: flecainide
  205. beta-blockers
    • block the effect of adrenaline on beta receptors, which slow nerve impulses that pass through the heart, thereby causing a decrease heart rate and contractility
    • Generic and trade names: atenolol; metoprolol
  206. calcium channel blockers
    • block movement of calcium (required for blood vessel contraction) into myocardial cells and arterial walls, causing heart rate and blood pressure to decrease
    • Generic and trade names: amlodipine; diltiazem; nifedipine
  207. diuretics
    • act on kidneys to increase excretion of water and sodium
    • Generic and trade names: furosemide
  208. nitrates
    • dilate blood vessels of the heart, causing an increase in the amount of oxygen delivered to the myocardium, and decrease venous return and arterial resistance, which decreases myocardial oxygen demand and relieves angina.
    • Generic and trade names: nitroglycerin
  209. peripheral vasodilators
    • peripheral dilators treat peripheral vascular diseases, diabetic peripheral vascular insufficiency, and Raynaud disease
    • Generic and trade names: cyclandelate; isoxsuprine
  210. statins
    • lower cholesterol in the blood and reduce its production in the liver by blocking the enzyme that produces it
    • Generic and trade names: atorvastatin; simvastatin; simvastatin and ezetimibe
  211. Abbreviations
    • AAA- abnormal aortic aneurysm AST- angiotensin sensitivity test
    • ACE- angiotensin-converting enzyme (inhibitor) AV- atrioventricular; atriovenous
    • AF- atrial fibrillation BBB- bundle-branch block
    • AS- aortic stenosis BP, B/P- blood pressure
    • ASD- atrial septal defect CA- cancer; chronological age; cardiac arrest
    • ASHD- arteriosclerotic heart disease CABG- coronary artery bypass graft
  212. Abbreviations continued
    • CAD- coronary artery disease CV- cardiovascular
    • CC- cardiac catheterization DES- drug-eluting stent
    • CCU- coronary care unit DOE- dyspnea on exertion
    • CHD- coronary heart disease DSA- digital subtraction angiography
    • Chol- cholesterol DVT- deep vein thrombosis; deep venuos thrombosis
    • CK- creatine kinase (cardiac enzymes); conductive keratoplasty EF- ejection fraction
  213. Abbreviations continued
    • ETT- exercise tolerance test LA- left atrium
    • HDL- high-desity lipoprotein LD- lactate dehydrogenase; lactic acid dehydrogenase (cardiac enzyme)
    • HF- heart failure LDL- low-density lipoprotein
    • HTN- hypertension LV- left ventricle
    • ICD- implantable cardioverter defribrillator MI- myocardial infarction
    • IV- intravenous MR- mitral regurgitation
  214. Abbreviations continued
    • MRA- magnetic resonance angiogram; magnetic resonance angiography NSR- normal sinus rhythm
    • MRI- magnetic resonance imaging PAC- premature atrial contraction
    • MS- musculoskeletal; multiple schlerosis; mitral stenosis; mental status PTCA- percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
    • MUGA- multiple-gated acquisition (scan) PVC- premature ventricular contraction
    • MVP- mitral valve prolapse RA- right atrium
  215. Abbreviations continued
    • RV- residual volume
    • SA, S-A- sinoatrial
    • VSD- ventricular septal defect
    • VT- ventricular tachycardia