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Define External Efficacy
Belief that the system responds to citizens (low)
Define Internal efficacy
confidence in ones abiliy to understand and influence events (high)
Defien Political Efficacy
A citizens capacity to understand and influence political events
Define Political Ideology
Set of values a personhold that are reflected in their political views.
What are exit polls?
Polls taken after the voting to determien the steryotypes of the average voter.
Define Random Sampling
the principal that everyone should have an equal probability of being selected for a sample.
What are sampling errors?
Slight variation +-3% of those asked; the larger the population the smaller the sampling error.
What is a sample?
A small group of people chosen in a survey to be a representative of a whole
What are some of the critisims towards polling?
- Polls make politicians think more about following than leading the public
- Some of the people surveyed dont have much knowledge about whats being asked
- The wording can influence a persons responce
What is grassroots politics/lobbying?
Lobbying on a local level; without the help of big corporations; have stronger opinions
Linkage is your output (how you react with the information that you took in)
Socialization is what you taken in (the knowledge you acquire, and the information you gain from others)
What are linkage systems/insitutions?
- Interest Groups
- Political parties.
What are social cleaveges?
The thing that cling to your political ideology (education, ethnicity, religion)
How does age influence political participation and party attachment?
As a person age increase their political participation increase and their party attachment strengthens.
What influence Poltical Socilization?
- The Family
- Mass Media
What is political socialization?
The process through which an individual acquires their particular political orientation that grow firmer with age
Describe the trend of trust in government
The trust in govenment was rather high during the Cold War but declined in the 1950's after Watergate and the Vietnam War
What are the american core values?
- Civic Duty
What is political culture?
A set of widely held and shared beliefs concerning the was olitical and economic life should be carried out
Define liknage istitutions
the political channeles through which peoples concerns become political issues on the policy agenda.
Why is there a decline in government?
- Divided Government
- Hightened Partisan Atmosphere
True or Flase: Changes in feelings os political efficacy, unlike those of trust in government, have been dificult to correlate with any specific event
True or False: Political culture is a patterned set of bliefs about how politics and governing out to be carried out
True or False: Equality of results is an important element in the U.S view of the political system
What is one reason why public policy often differes fom public opinion?
The US Constitution places many checks on the influence of public opinion
What is the number 1 factor in determining who votes? Other factors?
- Party Identification is the number 1 factor
- Other factors include:
- Policy High Politica Efficiency
What are some of the Obstacles to voting in America?
- Voter Registration
- Less Effective role of Political Parties
- **no correlation between distrust of political leaders
What has happened to the voter turnout as the right to vote has been extended?
It has decreased; "Voting is a matter of habit. The more frequently a person has voted in the past the more likely her or she is to continue voting"
What did the 26th Amendment do?
Changed the minimum voting age from 21 to 18; the increased political activism of the youth inspired this expansion
What did the 19th Amendment allow
Woman te right to vote which in turn doubled the size of the electorate
What did the the 15 Amendment say?
The rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall no tbe denied on account of race, color, or previous conditions of servitude
What is the Voting Rights Acts of 1965?
Act that prohibited states from using discriminatory practices at the polls.
What groups are more likely to vote?
- More Educated
- More Religous
- High Income
- Underrepresented minorities
- Married couples
- Union Members
- *cumilative traits- possessing more of these traits adds up
Before the New Deal, what was the beliefs of conservatives?
government was best left to the hands of the political elite
What were the beliefs or liberals before the New Deal?
They diapproved of a strong centeral government;government was a friend of buisness and the political elites
What are populist?
Thoes who have liberal views on economic matters and conservative views on social matters.
What are libretarians?
People who have conservative views on economic matters and liberal views on social matter
What are three factors that divide people political beliefs?
- Social class (those who are por will suport a party who supports their needs while those who are rich will support a party that helps maintain their wealth)
- Race and Ethnicity(support parties that benefit minorities and imigrants)
- Religion (beliefs or religion affect its peoples political opinion)
What are the four factors that affect political attitudes?
- The Role of the Family
- Gender Gap
- Schooling and Information
How can polarization be shown?
Through mass media, political changes, and the beliefs of interest groups.
What is polarization?
The wide gap, usually based on political and moral beliefs, between two groups of people