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2012-03-07 20:15:22

cards for test 2
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  1. Prenatal Development
    during this stage the most dramatic gains in height and weight occur.
  2. Germinal Stage
    The period from conception to implantation) first stage of prenatal development, during which the dividing mass of cells has not become implanted in the uterine wall.
  3. Reflexes:
    unlearned response to a stimulus. (ex; grasping, breathe, sneeze, cough, yawn, blink, etc)
  4. Cognitive development
    The way in which children mentally represent and think about the world. Piaget: perceived patterns in the children’s “mistakes”
  5. Assimilation:
    means responding to a new stimulus through existing cognitive structures) Piaget described human thought, or intelligence, in terms of the concepts of assimilation and accommodation
  6. Accommodation:
    is the creation of new ways of responding to objects or looking at the world. Ex: Children transform existing schemas to incorporate new events.
  7. Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development
    • 1-Sensorimotor
    • 2-Preoperational
    • 3-Concrete operational
    • 4-Formal operational.
  8. Egocentrism:
    The assumption that others view the world as one does oneself
  9. Conservation:
    Recognition that basic properties of substances such as weight & mass remain the same when superficial features change (according to Piaget)
  10. Object permanence
    The assignment of blame according to the amount of damage done rather than the motives of the actor (according to Piaget)
  11. Attachment:
    an emotional tie that is formed between one animal or person and another specific individual.
  12. Attachment types
    • 1-Secure attachement; attached infants mildly protest their mother’s departure, seek interaction upon reunion & are readily comforted by her.
    • 2-Avoidant attachment;(Insecure attachment) Infants who show avoidant attach-ment are least distressed by their mother’s departure, tey play by themselves without fuss and ignore their mothers when they return.
    • 3-Ambivalent / resistant attachment;(Insecure attachment) Infants w/ ambivalent/resistant attachment are the most emotional. They show severe signs of distress when their mother leaves and show ambivalence upon reunion by alternately clinging to and pushing their mother away when she returns.
  13. Temperament
    In-class video on temperament (the bold versus timid monkeys)
  14. Erikson’s 8
    • stage 1 (birth-1yr) trust vs. mistrust
    • stage 2 (1-3yrs) autonomy vs. shame/doubt
    • stage 3 (3-5yrs) initiative vs. guilt
    • stage 4 (5-12yrs) industry vs. inferiority
    • stage 5 (adolescence) identity vs. confusion
    • stage 6 (young adulthood) intimacy vs. isolation
    • stage 7 (middle adulthood) generative vs. stagnation
    • stage 8 (late adulthood to death) integrity vs. despair
  15. Sensation:
    Stimulation of sensory receptors (organs such as eyes, ears, skin) and the transmission of sensory information to the CNS (spinal cord & brain (Automatic process)
  16. Perception
    (is not automatic) the process by which sensations are organized into an inner representation of the world. May begin with sensation.
  17. Phases of Attachment:
    • 1-The initial-preattachment phase; lasts from birth to about three months and is characterized by indiscriminate attachment.
    • 2-The attachment-in-the- making phase; occurs @ about three or four months and is characterized by preference for familiar figures.
    • 3-The clear-cut –attachment phase; occurs @ about 6 or 7 months & is characterized by intensified depen-dence on the primary caregiver. Fear of strangers, which develops in some but not all children, follows 1 or 2 months later.
  18. Visual System
    • Photoreceptors: Rods: rod-shaped photoreceptors that are sensitive only to the intensity of light.
    • Cones: cone-shaped photoreceptors that transmit sensations of color.
    • Bipolar cells: Neurons that conduct neural impulses from rods and cones to ganglion cells.
    • Ganglion cells: Neurons whose axons from the optic nerve.
    • Optic nerve: The nerve that transmits sensory information from the eye to the brain. Theories of
  19. Color Vision:
    • Trichromatic Theory: The theory that color vision is made possible by three types of cones, respond to (red light, green & blue)
    • Opponent-process Theory: The theory that color vision is made possible by three types of cones, respond to (red, green light, some to blue or yellow & some to intensity of light)
  20. Gestalt Psychology:
    Perceptual organization (laws of proximity, similarity, continuity & common fate) Ex: 2 faces reflect as a vase (copa)