- Apraxia – without practice – this is the inability to
- perform a learned (skilled) purposeful action. Damage to the frontal lobe will cause this. So you can control you arms and the muscles are fine, but you can't combine these movements together to do a skill like walking or feeding myself.
- Agraphia – ability to write is gone – usually caused by a
- stroke in the angular gyrus – kind of a type of apraxia
Aphasia – problems with language or the symbols associated with it – aphasia is often associated with a stroke in the angular gryus
sensory or receptor aphasia – can't understand language – can't see , it read it , hear it
visual aphasia – without words – can't understand words on a piece of paper so you can't read , even though before the stroke or problem you could.
auditory aphasia – can read perfectly but can't understand spoken words usually caused by damage to Wernikies area.
- motor or verbal aphasia - can't write it or speak it
- expressive aphasia – can read and understand spoken words but can't speak due to damage to Broca's area.
Alexia – without word or words blindness
Agnosia – means without knowledge in Greek – so this is something they don't know or without knowledge. So the visual cortex is fine but you look at something and you don't know what it is. You can have visual or tactile agnosia, so don't know what your seeing or touching. Also caused by strokes to the right angular gyrus. Pt with due this do odd things like brush hair with apple when they have visual agnosia. Often caused by strokes to the right angular gryus which goes aroudn the corner of the lateral gryus.
SN: Famous book written by oliver sacks called “the man who mistook his wife for a hat”
- Neglect – many types or terms used for this hemispatial,
- hemiagnosia, unilater neglect - A severe from of agnosia is called
neglect – were the pt totally ignores one side of the body and world. This is usually associated with damage to the right angular gryus (right hemisphere). In most pt this is Caused by right hemisphere damage so it is a left sided agnosia, though can happen in the left hemisphere but it is very rare for some reason. Pt with the right side neglect will due odd things like shaving the right side of the face but not the left side, they will even eat only food of the right side of there plate but not the left. They don't believe there is a left side of the world. In extreme cases they have tried to cut there arm off because they don't believe it there limb they though it was an alien being because they don't believe that the left side of the world exists. So to them there is no left side of the world. Need to know were to stand and how to interact and were to put things like, were to put the TV in there rooms and how to place mirrors all of these things trying to force them to realize there is a left side. This can be broken down into input and output neglect.
- Output – don't output motor commands to the left side -
- wont shave or move left side in extreme cases have tried to cut of left arm because they refuse to believe they have a left side to there body. So you don't interact with the left hand side of the world
- Input –don't acknowledge sensory information from the
- left side of the world - is sensory neglect you don't hear, feel or see the left hand side of the world
- Dysarthria – problems with articulation of word due to a
- mechanical problem , not the same as aphasia – example if your tongue was paralyzed.