How many years of revolutionary conflict did it take before Napoleon became First Consul of France.
The philosophy of the enlightenment was that _____________________ not ___________________________ was the best guide for human conduct.
Reason; custom or tradition
Why was Mozart buried in an unmarked grave?
He discouraged elaborate religious ceremonies and decreed that burials be simple
Which established ideas were being reexamined during the Age of Enlightenment?
All established ideas were being reexamined
Baroque art was heavy and monumental, rococo was _______________________,_____________________,_________________________.
light colors, curved lines, and graceful ornaments
Later, neoclassical art emphasized _____________________,______________________,______________________.
the “noble simplicity and calm grandeur” of ancient Greek and Roman art
Why did Beethoven tear out the title page of his 3rd symphony?
he learned that Napoleon had proclaimed himself emperor
What characterized the mid-eighteenth century Style gallant?
light, graceful music
List 3 ways to define the term classical:
it may refer to Greek or Roman antiquity, or it may be used for any supreme accomplishment of lasting appeal (as in the expression movie classic). Many people take classical music to mean anything that is not rock, jazz, folk, or popular music.
Great variety and contrast of mood received new emphasis in classical music.
Flexibility of rhythm adds variety to classical music
Mainly homophonic but pieces shift smoothly or suddenly from one texture to another.
Classical melodies tend to sound balanced and symmetrical because they are frequently made up of two phrases of the same length
Classical composers' interest in expressing shades of emotion led to the widespread use of gradual dynamic change
The basso continuo was gradually abandoned during the classical period.
Why did the piano replace the harpsichord?
the desire for gradual dynamic change
When did Haydn and Mozart use trombones?
only in opera and church music
How many players might by found in Haydn's orchestras?
What was the role of brass in a Classical orchestra?
brought power to loud passages and filled out the harmony
Arrange the following movements into a typical Classical four movement work - slow, fast, fast, dance-related
fast, slow, dance related, fast
Why are the works of Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven different, even though they are very similar in style?
Beethoven's music seems more powerful, violent, and emotional; Haydn and Mozart composed music that is passionate and dramatic.
List 4 areas where the growing middle class influenced 18th century music?
townspeople organized public concerts, the demand for printed music, instruments, and music lessons had vastly increased, They wrote pieces that were easy for amateur musicians to play and understand; They turned from serious to comic opera
List at least 5 adjectives that might describe Vienna in 1789.
How many main themes are "exposed" during the first section of a sonata-form movement.
How is tension built up in the middle of a sonata-form movement?
How are the themes presented differently at the end of a sonata-form movement?
they are all in the tonic key
Why has the sonata-form been used so much?
Sonata form is so versatile
How many variations are found in the typical "Theme and Variations" form?
What kind of dance was the minuet?
stately, dignified dance in which the dancing couple exchanged curtsies and bows.
Which movement of a classical symphony or string quartet was styled after the minuet?
Why is the middle section of the minuet form called a "trio"?
it was usually played by three instruments
Beethoven preferred to use the __________________ for his third movements.
How many symphonies did the three great Classical Period composers produce together?
Identify the movements of a typical Classical symphony:
(1) a vigorous, dramatic fast movement; (2) a lyrical slow movement; (3) a dancelike movement (minuet or scherzo); and (4) a brilliant or heroic fast movement.
What are the two major differences between a symphony and a concerto?
a classical concerto has three movements; A concerto has no minuet or scherzo.
Which is more important in a concerto, the soloist or the orchestra?
soloist and orchestra are equally important
Why do soloists like cadenzas?
The soloist is very much the star, and all of his or her musical talents are needed in this challenging dialogue.
What are some typical instrument combinations for chamber music?
two violins, a viola, and a cello; violin and piano; violin, cello, and piano
What was Haydn's normal weekly assignment at his first full-time job?
Haydn was to compose all the music requested by his patron, conduct the orchestra, coach singers, and oversee the instruments and the music library
List at least 6 characteristics of Haydn and his music.
robust and direct; healthy optimism; folk flavor, love of nature, contrasts of mood, humorous
What is significant about Haydn's Trumpet Concerto in Eb major?
Haydn wrote the concerto in 1796 for a friend, a trumpeter at the Viennese court who had recently invented a keyed trumpet that could produce a complete chromatic scale. The keyed trumpet was intended to replace the natural trumpet, which could produce only a restricted number of tones. But the keyed trumpet had a dull sound and was supplanted by the valve trumpet around 1840.
At what age did Mozart write his first symphony?his first opera?
How did Mozart find success as an adult?
He broke free of provincial Salzburg and traveled to Vienna, intending to be a freelance musician
Why was the opera Don Giovanni rejected by Vienna?
its dark qualities and dissonance did not appeal to the Viennese
Which composition was Mozart's last work?
List 4 musical forms that Mozart excelled in composing.
symphonies, string quartets, piano concertos, and operas\
Which is Don Juan -- comic or serious opera?
blend of comic and serious opera
Who commands Don Juan to repent?
a marble statue of the dead Commandant
How old was Mozart when Beethoven played for him?
What did Vienna think of the young Beethoven?
This music-loving city was dazzled by his virtuosity and moved by his improvisations
What was the document called in which Beethoven expressed his determination to keep composing in spite of his increasing deafness?
How did Beethoven view the role of music in his life and society?
For Beethoven, music was not mere entertainment, but a moral force, “a higher revelation than all wisdom and philosophy.”
In what ways did Beethoven exceed the power and intensity of his predecessors in his compositions? (look for at least 9, I found 12)
syncopations and dissonances; range of pitch and dynamics; contrasts of mood; Accents and climaxes; larger musical framework; musical continuity; greatly expanded development section and coda of sonata-form movements and more dramatic; climactic, triumphant finales; departure from the light, relaxed ending movement
What did Beethoven call his Piano Sonata in C Minor, because of it's tragically passionate mood?
The opening motive "dit-dit-dit-dah" of Beethoven's 5th Symphony is Morse Code for "V" (Victory in WWII).What did Beethoven consider it to be?