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2012-03-08 13:03:18

digestive system
Show Answers:

  1. Oral cavity:
  2. Types of digestion occurring in the oral cavity:
    Chemical and mechanical digestion
  3. List the two main functions of the digestive system:
    • Prepare food for absorption and use by the cells
    • Eliminate ingested food that becomes waste material
  4. How does the alimentary canal differ from the food tube?
    They are the same. They do not differ.
  5. How does the alimentary canal differ from the accessory organs?
    Food or waste pass through the alimentary canal. It consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines.

    Accessory organs consist of teeth, salivary glands, gallbladden, liver and pancreas.
  6. Give the begining and end of the alimentary canal
    • begining- mouth
    • end- anus
  7. Lateral walls of the mouth:
    Seperates the oral and nasal cavities:
    Anterior parts of the cheeks:
    • Cheeks
    • Palates
    • Lips
  8. Floor of the oral cavity:
    Funtion of the lingual frenulum:
    • Tongue
    • Attaches tongye to floor of mouth
  9. The secretion of the chief cells of the stomach:
    The secretion of the parietal cells:
    • Digestive enzymes
    • Hydrochloric acid (HCL)
  10. How does the anterior and posterior palate differ?
    • Anterior- hard palate (bone)
    • Posterior- soft palate (cartilage)
  11. What is the uvula an extension of?
    What is its function?
    • Soft palate
    • gag reflex, rises to allow passage of bolus into throat then drops to prevent roll bach into mouth
  12. Which class of foods begin their digestion in the mouth? In the stomach?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Protein
  13. Projections on the upper surface of the tongue:
    What sensory structures are located within the projections?
    • Papille
    • Taste buds
  14. A lingual frenulum attached too far anteriorly will result in what condition?
  15. The sphincter at the superior end of the stomach:
    at the inferior end of the stomach:
    • Cardiac sphincter
    • Pyloric sphincter
  16. Passageway for larynx and esophagus:
  17. Type of digestion in the pharynx:
    Type of digestion in the stomach:
    Type of digestion in the esophagus:
    • Mechanical
    • Mechanical and chemical
    • Mechanical
  18. Wavelike contractions moving food through the alimentary canal:
    Type of digestion performed by these contractions:
    • Peristalsis
    • Mechanical
  19. Folds of the mucous membrane in the walls of the stomach:
    • Rugae
    • Allows stretching of the mucosa
  20. Opening of gastric glands in the mucosa of the stomach:
    gastric pits
  21. The small region of the stomach receiving food from the esophagus:
  22. Largest part of the stomach:
  23. Lower part of the stomach near the junction of the duodenum:
  24. The part of the stomach superior to the cardiac section and serving as a temporart storage area:
  25. Peritoneum providing support and allowing movement:
  26. Give the dimensions of the small intestine:
    How is the large intestine named?
    • 21 foot long and 1 inch diameter
    • By larger diameter
  27. Give the beginning and end of the small intestine:
    Begin with pyloric sphincter, end with illeoceacal sphincter
  28. The section of the small intestinereceiving chyme from the stomach?
  29. The section of small intestine which joins the large intestine:
    What is the name of the junction?
    • Ileum
    • Ileocecal sphincter
  30. The blind puch at the point of junction:
  31. The worm-like extension of the blind pouch:
  32. What is the function served by the villi in the mucosal lining of the small in the mucosal lining of the small intestine?
    Increase the mucosa absorptive area
  33. Are villi present in the large intestine?
  34. Middle section of the small intestine:
  35. Acidic material leaving the stomach and entering the small intestine?
  36. The short terminal part of the large intestine anterior to the sacrum:
  37. Name the four regions of the colon:
    Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
  38. Which part of the colon is found on the left side? The right side?
    • Descending
    • Ascending
  39. Which part extends from the left side to the midline?
  40. What kind of digestion occures in the large intestine?
  41. Exterior opening of the anal canal:
  42. How do the internal and external anal sphinters differ?
    • Internal sphincter- involuntary
    • External sphincter- voluntary
  43. First segment of the large intestine below the ileocecal sphincter?
  44. Scientific term for chewing:
  45. The first teeth:
    Number and kinds:
    • Deciduous
    • 20 (8 incisors, 4 cuspids, 8 molars)
  46. Permanent teeth number and kinds:
    32 (3rd molars, 8 incisors, 4 cuspids, 8 bicuspids, 12 molars)
  47. How does the total number of deciduos and permanent teeth differ?
    20 deciduos and 32 permanent
  48. List three functions for saliva:
    • Binding food particles together
    • Dissolving certain foods
    • Cleansing and lubricating the mouth
    • Starts carb digestion in the mouth
    • Allows a sense of taste
  49. Larges of the salivary glands:
    • Parotid
    • Anterior to each ear over the masseter muscle
  50. Salivary glands under the tongue:
  51. Salivary glands under the mandible:
  52. Which pair of salivary glands are the smallest?
  53. Discuss how the salivary secretions differ among the sublingual, parotid, and submandibular glands:
    • Sublingual- secrete mainly mucus
    • Parotid- secrete enzyme (amylase) rich saliva
    • Submandibular- secrete watery saliva
  54. Largest gland of the body:
    Number of lobes:
    • Liver
    • 4
    • Upper right quadrent of abdomen
  55. The microscopic functional units composing each liver lobe:
  56. The structures analagous to the capillaries:
  57. What structures radiate out from the central vein?
    Cords of liver cells
  58. Vessel which carries oxygenated blood to the liver cells:
    Hepatic artery
  59. Vessel which carries deoxygenated, nutrient- rich blood from the digestive tract?
    Hepatic portal vein
  60. Vessel formed by the merginig of many central veins:
    Hepatic vein
  61. What vesselcarries the blood from the liver to the heart?
    Inferior vena cava
  62. The joining of the heparic duct and cystic duct forms the _____.
    Common bile duct
  63. Duct formed by many bile ducts:
    Hepatic duct
  64. Duct which carries bile from the liver:
    Hepatic duct
  65. The short duct extending from the gall bladder:
    Cystic duct
  66. Duct formed by the union of hepatic duct and cystic duct:
    Common bile duct
  67. Duct which empties bile into the duodenum:
    Common bile duct
  68. Organ for storing bile temporarily:
    Gall bladder
  69. Compare chemical and mechanical digestion:
    • Mechanical- All movements of digestive tract bringing about a physical change
    • Chemical- all the changes in chemical composition of foods in the digestive tract by undergoing hydrolysis
  70. Why is the pancrease considered a dual organ?
    Because it is exocrine ( secretes pancreatic juice involved with digestion) and exocrine (secretes hormones insulin and glucose)
  71. The endocrine part of the pancreas consisting of secretory cells:
    islets of Langerhans
  72. Structure through which pancreatic juice is carried to the duodenum:
    Pancreatic duct
  73. Splitting a compound into simpler substances with water:
  74. Enzyme in saliva:
    Class of foods affected:
    • amylase
    • carbohydrates
    • maltose broken down into disaccharide
  75. The four enzymes found in the intestinal juice: the class of foods acted upon: end products:
    • Peptidases-----protein(peptides)-----amino acids
    • Sucrase-----carbohydrates(sucrose)-----glucose&fructose
    • Lactase-----carbohydrates(lactose)-----glucose&fructose
    • Maltase-----carbohydrate(maltose)-----glucose
  76. Acid found in gastric juice:
  77. Enzyme found in gastric juice: food acted on: and result:
    • Pepsin-----proteins-----partially digested proteins
    • *pepsin will not work without HCl
  78. What substance emulsifies fats? What is emulsification?
    • Bile
    • Mechanical breakdown of fats into globules
  79. How do large fatty acids differ from the very small fatty acids?
    • Large diffuse into villi and glycerol combine to form fat molecules
    • Very small fatty acids enter the villi directlywith out forming fat molecules
  80. All materials absorbed into the blood are carried from the small intestine to the liver by what structure?
    Hepatic portal vein
  81. Absorbed into the capillaries of the villi by active transport and some diffusion?
  82. Classification of foods actively absorbed in the capillaries of the villi?
  83. Sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in the body:
  84. Compare the two phases of metabolism:
    • Catabolism- breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones to release energy
    • Anabolism-combining simple substances into complex molecules
  85. Splitting glycogen into glucose:
  86. Sugar-regulating hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic ducts:
  87. First process of carbohydrate catabolism:
  88. The formation of glucose from protein or fat compounds:
  89. Sugar-regulating hormone produced by alpha cells of the pancreatic islets:
  90. What does glugagon do to the blood glucose level?
  91. The amount of enery released in the body in a given time by catabolism:
    metabolic rate
  92. Explain the meaning of basal metabolism rate:
    Rate of expenditure of energy under three conditions: 1) rest, 2) post absorptive rate..12-18 hrs after last meal, 3) a comfortably warm environment
  93. Glycogen formation by the joining of glucose molecules:
  94. For each of the following factors, explain their influence on BMR:
    thyroid hormone, size, caffeine, sex, fever, age, hypothermia, pregnancy
    • thyroid hormone: greater the thyroid hormone faster the BMR
    • size: larger the individual, greater the BMR
    • caffeine: increase
    • sex: men have a 5-7% higher BMR than women
    • fever: increase
    • age: low at birth, increase from 3-6yrs, then decrease
    • hypothermia: decrease
    • pregnancy: increase
  95. Amount of energy used by the body in a given time:
    What units are used for expressing this value?
    • Total metabolic rate
    • kc/hr.......kc/day
  96. What is a state of energy balance?
    energy input equals energy output
  97. If the body maintains an energy balance, what happens to body weight?
    remains constant
  98. How does the thermic effect of proteins compare with the thermic effect of fats and carbohydrates?
    Proteins 30% thermic effect. Other 5%.
  99. Simplest form of a fat:
    Simplest form of a protein:
    Simplest form of a carbohydrate:
    Most complex form of a carbohydrate:
    • fatty acid and glycerol
    • amino acids
    • glucose
    • polysaccharide
  100. Enzyme acting on fats:
  101. How are fatty acids and glycerol metabolized?
    They are metabolized seperatly by krebs cycle
  102. Why are proteins broken down extracellularly?
    Because they cant pass through the plasma membrane unaided
  103. What two enzymes act on proteins?
    Proteases and peptidases
  104. Explain deamination of proteins:
    Amino groud of the amino acids remobed and converted to ammonium ion and the amonium ion is excreated from the cell
  105. What is the importance of the Kreb's cycle?
    Provides for oxidation of glucose, fatty acids, glycerol, and the organic acid part of amino acids
  106. Process by which the energy stored in food inside the cells is released?
    cellular respiration
  107. How does aerobic respiration differ from anaerobic respiration?
    • Aerobic- with oxygen
    • Anaerobic- with out oxygen
  108. The process of breaking down one glucose molecule into two, 3-carbon pyruvic acid molecules:
  109. Why must glycolysis precede Krebs cycle?
    Thats what makes pyruvic acid
  110. What happens to the pyruvic acid inside the mitochondrion?
    It breaks down into carbon dioxide, NADH2, and a 2-carbon compound (acetyl grou)