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Types of digestion occurring in the oral cavity:
Chemical and mechanical digestion
List the two main functions of the digestive system:
- Prepare food for absorption and use by the cells
- Eliminate ingested food that becomes waste material
How does the alimentary canal differ from the food tube?
They are the same. They do not differ.
How does the alimentary canal differ from the accessory organs?
Food or waste pass through the alimentary canal. It consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines.
Accessory organs consist of teeth, salivary glands, gallbladden, liver and pancreas.
Give the begining and end of the alimentary canal
Lateral walls of the mouth:
Seperates the oral and nasal cavities:
Anterior parts of the cheeks:
Floor of the oral cavity:
Funtion of the lingual frenulum:
- Attaches tongye to floor of mouth
The secretion of the chief cells of the stomach:
The secretion of the parietal cells:
- Digestive enzymes
- Hydrochloric acid (HCL)
How does the anterior and posterior palate differ?
- Anterior- hard palate (bone)
- Posterior- soft palate (cartilage)
What is the uvula an extension of?
What is its function?
- Soft palate
- gag reflex, rises to allow passage of bolus into throat then drops to prevent roll bach into mouth
Which class of foods begin their digestion in the mouth? In the stomach?
Projections on the upper surface of the tongue:
What sensory structures are located within the projections?
A lingual frenulum attached too far anteriorly will result in what condition?
The sphincter at the superior end of the stomach:
at the inferior end of the stomach:
- Cardiac sphincter
- Pyloric sphincter
Passageway for larynx and esophagus:
Type of digestion in the pharynx:
Type of digestion in the stomach:
Type of digestion in the esophagus:
- Mechanical and chemical
Wavelike contractions moving food through the alimentary canal:
Type of digestion performed by these contractions:
Folds of the mucous membrane in the walls of the stomach:
- Allows stretching of the mucosa
Opening of gastric glands in the mucosa of the stomach:
The small region of the stomach receiving food from the esophagus:
Largest part of the stomach:
Lower part of the stomach near the junction of the duodenum:
The part of the stomach superior to the cardiac section and serving as a temporart storage area:
Peritoneum providing support and allowing movement:
Give the dimensions of the small intestine:
How is the large intestine named?
- 21 foot long and 1 inch diameter
- By larger diameter
Give the beginning and end of the small intestine:
Begin with pyloric sphincter, end with illeoceacal sphincter
The section of the small intestinereceiving chyme from the stomach?
The section of small intestine which joins the large intestine:
What is the name of the junction?
The blind puch at the point of junction:
The worm-like extension of the blind pouch:
What is the function served by the villi in the mucosal lining of the small in the mucosal lining of the small intestine?
Increase the mucosa absorptive area
Are villi present in the large intestine?
Middle section of the small intestine:
Acidic material leaving the stomach and entering the small intestine?
The short terminal part of the large intestine anterior to the sacrum:
Name the four regions of the colon:
Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
Which part of the colon is found on the left side? The right side?
Which part extends from the left side to the midline?
What kind of digestion occures in the large intestine?
Exterior opening of the anal canal:
How do the internal and external anal sphinters differ?
- Internal sphincter- involuntary
- External sphincter- voluntary
First segment of the large intestine below the ileocecal sphincter?
Scientific term for chewing:
The first teeth:
Number and kinds:
- 20 (8 incisors, 4 cuspids, 8 molars)
Permanent teeth number and kinds:
32 (3rd molars, 8 incisors, 4 cuspids, 8 bicuspids, 12 molars)
How does the total number of deciduos and permanent teeth differ?
20 deciduos and 32 permanent
List three functions for saliva:
- Binding food particles together
- Dissolving certain foods
- Cleansing and lubricating the mouth
- Starts carb digestion in the mouth
- Allows a sense of taste
Larges of the salivary glands:
- Anterior to each ear over the masseter muscle
Salivary glands under the tongue:
Salivary glands under the mandible:
Which pair of salivary glands are the smallest?
Discuss how the salivary secretions differ among the sublingual, parotid, and submandibular glands:
- Sublingual- secrete mainly mucus
- Parotid- secrete enzyme (amylase) rich saliva
- Submandibular- secrete watery saliva
Largest gland of the body:
Number of lobes:
- Upper right quadrent of abdomen
The microscopic functional units composing each liver lobe:
The structures analagous to the capillaries:
What structures radiate out from the central vein?
Cords of liver cells
Vessel which carries oxygenated blood to the liver cells:
Vessel which carries deoxygenated, nutrient- rich blood from the digestive tract?
Hepatic portal vein
Vessel formed by the merginig of many central veins:
What vesselcarries the blood from the liver to the heart?
Inferior vena cava
The joining of the heparic duct and cystic duct forms the _____.
Common bile duct
Duct formed by many bile ducts:
Duct which carries bile from the liver:
The short duct extending from the gall bladder:
Duct formed by the union of hepatic duct and cystic duct:
Common bile duct
Duct which empties bile into the duodenum:
Common bile duct
Organ for storing bile temporarily:
Compare chemical and mechanical digestion:
- Mechanical- All movements of digestive tract bringing about a physical change
- Chemical- all the changes in chemical composition of foods in the digestive tract by undergoing hydrolysis
Why is the pancrease considered a dual organ?
Because it is exocrine ( secretes pancreatic juice involved with digestion) and exocrine (secretes hormones insulin and glucose)
The endocrine part of the pancreas consisting of secretory cells:
islets of Langerhans
Structure through which pancreatic juice is carried to the duodenum:
Splitting a compound into simpler substances with water:
Enzyme in saliva:
Class of foods affected:
- maltose broken down into disaccharide
The four enzymes found in the intestinal juice: the class of foods acted upon: end products:
- Peptidases-----protein(peptides)-----amino acids
Acid found in gastric juice:
Enzyme found in gastric juice: food acted on: and result:
- Pepsin-----proteins-----partially digested proteins
- *pepsin will not work without HCl
What substance emulsifies fats? What is emulsification?
- Mechanical breakdown of fats into globules
How do large fatty acids differ from the very small fatty acids?
- Large diffuse into villi and glycerol combine to form fat molecules
- Very small fatty acids enter the villi directlywith out forming fat molecules
All materials absorbed into the blood are carried from the small intestine to the liver by what structure?
Hepatic portal vein
Absorbed into the capillaries of the villi by active transport and some diffusion?
Classification of foods actively absorbed in the capillaries of the villi?
Sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in the body:
Compare the two phases of metabolism:
- Catabolism- breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones to release energy
- Anabolism-combining simple substances into complex molecules
Splitting glycogen into glucose:
Sugar-regulating hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic ducts:
First process of carbohydrate catabolism:
The formation of glucose from protein or fat compounds:
Sugar-regulating hormone produced by alpha cells of the pancreatic islets:
What does glugagon do to the blood glucose level?
The amount of enery released in the body in a given time by catabolism:
Explain the meaning of basal metabolism rate:
Rate of expenditure of energy under three conditions: 1) rest, 2) post absorptive rate..12-18 hrs after last meal, 3) a comfortably warm environment
Glycogen formation by the joining of glucose molecules:
For each of the following factors, explain their influence on BMR:
thyroid hormone, size, caffeine, sex, fever, age, hypothermia, pregnancy
- thyroid hormone: greater the thyroid hormone faster the BMR
- size: larger the individual, greater the BMR
- caffeine: increase
- sex: men have a 5-7% higher BMR than women
- fever: increase
- age: low at birth, increase from 3-6yrs, then decrease
- hypothermia: decrease
- pregnancy: increase
Amount of energy used by the body in a given time:
What units are used for expressing this value?
- Total metabolic rate
What is a state of energy balance?
energy input equals energy output
If the body maintains an energy balance, what happens to body weight?
How does the thermic effect of proteins compare with the thermic effect of fats and carbohydrates?
Proteins 30% thermic effect. Other 5%.
Simplest form of a fat:
Simplest form of a protein:
Simplest form of a carbohydrate:
Most complex form of a carbohydrate:
- fatty acid and glycerol
- amino acids
Enzyme acting on fats:
How are fatty acids and glycerol metabolized?
They are metabolized seperatly by krebs cycle
Why are proteins broken down extracellularly?
Because they cant pass through the plasma membrane unaided
What two enzymes act on proteins?
Proteases and peptidases
Explain deamination of proteins:
Amino groud of the amino acids remobed and converted to ammonium ion and the amonium ion is excreated from the cell
What is the importance of the Kreb's cycle?
Provides for oxidation of glucose, fatty acids, glycerol, and the organic acid part of amino acids
Process by which the energy stored in food inside the cells is released?
How does aerobic respiration differ from anaerobic respiration?
- Aerobic- with oxygen
- Anaerobic- with out oxygen
The process of breaking down one glucose molecule into two, 3-carbon pyruvic acid molecules:
Why must glycolysis precede Krebs cycle?
Thats what makes pyruvic acid
What happens to the pyruvic acid inside the mitochondrion?
It breaks down into carbon dioxide, NADH2, and a 2-carbon compound (acetyl grou)