Industrialization, Europe from 1871-1914
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What were the conditions of a typical laborer during the Second Industrial Revolution?
Long hours, low pay, they often lost their religion and turned to alcohol, moral degradation, drudgery and hard manual labor. Nevertheless, working hours eventually began to decline and pay went up. Child labor was importand and common, 1/3 of the population was unemployed and there way a 41% infant mortality rate.
What was the fate of the artisan worker in the Second Industrial Revolution?
They were no longer needed and their businesses shrank dramatically.
What political party emerged in this time of industrial revolution?
The Social Democratic Party (its members were mostly male laborers who were not religious)
Describe Europe's situation from 1871-1914.
There was industrial growth, international peace, domestic stability, advances in democratic/constitutional/representative governments, and scientific progress. It was called La Belle Epoque
Explain how European life improved from 1871-1914 in these areas: Material needs, knowledge, and morality.
- Material: Better living condition and sanitation -- the advent of the telephone, cars, and public transportation changed daily life. This helped control the various plagues that used to pop up, and it improve agriculture because it allowed shipping of crops.
- Knowledge: Better maps were made and knowledge about geography and other cultures increased. Compulsory education became common and more higher-level education was established.
- Morality: They looked at statistics to make decisions, and the new morality was derived from Christian values, but it was distinctly secular. They did not approve of polygamy, infanticide, caste systems, and torture.
Explain the change in death rates in the late 19th century.
The death rate decreased dramatically, largely because infant mortality was lower. Women lived longer because they didn't need to have as many children. The population grew because of a decline in the death rate, not because of an increase in the birth rate.
Describe the migration patterns in the late 19th century.
People moved from the country to the city, and food was moved there by train. Many people left Europe for the US, Latin America, and Asiatic Russia because the governments let them take their money and possessions. The idea that you could become a citizen after birth began to develop, so some people left for reasons such as the economy, political persectuion, religion, and just the sheer fact that it was now easy to leave.
Describe trade and economic changes in the late 19th century
Europe had free trade with lower tariffs and fewer restrictions. In the 1880s, industries became more protected with taxes because of economic hardship, but the growth did not cease. Europe imported more than it exported, but it had "invisible exports" which are services such as shipping, insurance, and lending.
Describe some technological advances in the late 19th century and their effect on socitey.
- The internal combustion engine (ICE) was invented and popularized before 1914. Oil became an important commodity.
- New chemical products were developed and they were used in food, pesticides, explosives, synthetic fabrics, electricity, telephones, movies, radio, medicine, x-rays, steel, and aluminum). New railroads were established all over Europe.
Describe the advancements in the banking system in 19th century Europe.
Banks were backed by the gold standard, so they were very stable and exchangeable. This was good for lenders and wealthy people, but the people in debt did not have the opportunity to reduce their debt as the currency fluctuated in value. London was the financial center of the world, and there was a world market with standardized prices and competition.
Describe the economy in late 19th century Europe.
There were many booms and busts, and politicians were forced to instate protections to shield the lower class laborers who voted for them. Social legislation lead to trade unnions and socialism made laissez faire economy policies less prevalent. Corporations became popular and investments were common because investors had limited liability. Vertical and horizontal integration were common (vertical is controlling all processes in making/selling a product, and horizontal is creation of a monopoly).
To incite political change, people stopped hosting violent political revolutions. What did they do instead?
Marxism said that violence was necessary for change, but in Western Europe the Social Democrats favored gradualism. However, in Russia, Lenin encouraged violence.
Explain the Paris Commune and its role in French politics.
It wasa pro-republican association that was opposed to the Germans, bourgeois, clergy, and nobles. It advocated government control of the economy and working conditions. They used violence, such as setting fires and killing the Archbishop of Paris. Eventually they faded to oblivion and the President was given a position, but the government was run by the prime minister. This was a prosperous, secure, stable government from 1871-1941, but they had 50 ministers during that time.
For what did the French Radical Socialist Party stand?
Democracy and anti-clergy
Queen Victoria ruled from 1837-1901. After representation of English citizens was improved by the Reform Bill, in 1884 a second reform bill gave _______________. In 1918, __________.
- 3/4 male suffrage
- Universal male suffrage and partial female suffrage
Explain what Disraeli and the Labour Party did for the English worker in the 19th century.
- Disraeli regulated sanitation and working conditions in mines and factories and established worker's compensation programs.
- The Labour Party (spelled wrong) created unions that helped bargain for workers.
What was the Fabian Society?
It was an intellectual political group in 19th century England that opposed violence, strove to educate the public to improve working conditions, and to create publicly owned municipal utilities. They did not favor the class struggle.
Comment on the Irish Problem during the late 19th century.
The Irish Church was disestablished (good for the Irish), and the liberals split into radicals and liberals beause of this issue. The radicals did not want home rule, but the liberals succeeded in approving it, even though it was not recognized until after WWI.
Explain Bismarck's accomplishments under the rule of Wilhelm I.
Prussia had univeral male suffrage, and the Kaiser had a lot of power. Bizmarck allied with the liberals against the Catholics and Social Democrats. He initiated the Kulturkampf against the Catholics. In the meantime, Pope Pius IX put out an encyclical (Syllabus of Errors) saying that the pope was infalliable when speaking about faith or morality. Back to the Kulturkampf, the Jesuits were expelled and the clergy was removed from schools. Lutherans worried that Bismarck would do this to them too, so they started organizing with the Catholics in the cehter. Bizmarck got more conservative and imposed tarrifs to help the economy which maddened the liberals. Wilhelm and Bizmarck prohibited socialist meetings and instituted their policies to remove the cause for their program.
Explain the achievements of Wilhem II.
He fired Bismarck, implemented a strong foreign policy, dropped the socialst legisltation that Wilhem I brought about to annoy the socialists, and as a result the popularity of the Social Democrats increased.
Talk about Karl Marx's early life .
He grew up in a progressive household and he was influenced by Hegel's system of dialectics. He became a journalist and married the daughter of a Prussian aristocrat. he moved from Germany to France to Belgium to London because he kept getting exiled. He then befriended engels and wrote the Communist Manifesto.
Explain Marx's philosphy.
He said change would be gradual and unpredictable and violence was unnecessary. He said that communism was a taboo topic in Europe, but it was necessary for the working class that was poorly treated by the factory owners and such. He said it needed to be an international movement that happened at the same time because the ultimate goal was no government at all.
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