Brain and Behavior

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Brain and Behavior
2010-04-12 16:11:45
Embryology of the Eye

Exam II
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  1. The eyes develop from an extension of the ____ ____ in combination with the overlying ______ and the surface ______ in the head region.
    • neural tube
    • mesenchyme
    • ectoderm
  2. Development of the eyes begin when the future diencephalic region of the neural tube forms lateral evaginations called___ ____.
    optic vesicles
  3. The optic vesicles are attached to the neural tube by an ___ ___.
    Optic stalk
  4. The optic vesicles project from the neural tube towards the surface ectoderm. The distal end of the optic vesicle, called the ___ ___, invaginates to form the ___ ____.
    • retinal disk
    • optic cup
  5. The lens placode is a thickening of the __ ___ opposite to the optic cup.
    surface ectoderm
  6. The lens placode invaginates to form the __ ___, which buds off from the surface ectoderm and moves into the lumen of the ___ ___ to become the ___ ____.
    • lens pit
    • optic cup
    • lens vesicle
  7. An intervening layer of ____ seperates the lens vesicle from the optic cup.
  8. Where does the primary vitreous body form?
    in the lentiretinal space
  9. The cavity of the lens vesicle is overtaken by the growth of __ ___ __.
    primary lens fibers
  10. Ventrally, the optic stalk forms the __ ___.
    choriodal (retinal) fissure
  11. The hyaloid artery is a branch of the ___ ___ and supplies the developing ___ and ___. The hyaloid artery gains access to the interior of the optic cup via the ___ ____.
    • opthalamic artery
    • lens
    • retina
    • choroidal fissure
  12. The mature lens does not need a blood supply, therefore thedistal end of the ___ ___ will degenerate while the proximal portion remains the ___ ___ of the retina.
    • hyaloid artery
    • central artery
  13. The optic cup consists of two layers of neuroepthelium seperated by a cavity continuos with the ___ ___.
    ventricular system
  14. The outer layers of the neuroepithelium will differentiate into the ___ ___ and the intervening cavity is called the___ ___.
    • pigmented retina
    • intraretinal space
  15. The inner layer of the neuroepithelium of the optic cup develops into the ___ ___.
    neural retina
  16. The cells of the neural retina proliferate to become the outer and inner ____ ____.
    neuroblastic layers
  17. The outer neuroblastic layer forms the ___ and ____.
    rods and cones
  18. The cells of the inner neuroblastic layer form the ___ and ___ ___of the retina.
    ganglion and supporting cells
  19. The ganglion extend their axons through the __ __ mostly targeting the ___ ___ ___.
    • optic stalk
    • lateral geniculate nucleus
  20. The optic nerve develops when the ____ ___ send axons into the optic stalk targeting the ___ ____ ___.
    • ganglion cells
    • lateratl geniculate nucleus
  21. The ___ ___ is eventually obliterated by the coming together of the neural and pigmented retinas.
    intraretinal space
  22. A retinal detachment refers to the seperation of the ___ ___ from ___ ___.
    • neural retina
    • pigmented retina
  23. The mesenchyme surrounding the optic cup condenses, forming two separate layers. The inner layer forms a pigmented and vascular layer called the ____, which is continuous with the pia and arachnoid maters of the rest of the brain. The outer layer forms the ______, which is continuous with the dura mater.
    • choroid
    • tough sclera
  24. The choroid is continuous with??
    The sclera is continuos with?
    • The pia and subarachnoid mater
    • The dura mater
  25. Mesenchyme surrounding the developing eye invades the space between the lens vesicle and the surface ectoderm. This mesenchyme splits into a ___ ____ layer (closer to the surface ectoderm) that is continuous with the ____, and a deep pupillary membrane (near the lens) that is
    continuous with the _____.
    • superficial stroma layers
    • sclera
    • choroid
  26. The cavity between the stroma layer and the pupillary membrane of the mesenchyme becomes the ___ ___. The posterior portion of the thick pupillary membrane (adjacent to the lens) breaks down, forming the ___ ___. Eventually, the thin remaining portion of the pupillary membrane breaks down, creating the ______.
    • anterior chamber
    • posterior chamber
    • pupil
  27. The cornea has three layers: a superficial epithelium derived
    from surface ectoderm, a __ __, and a deep mesothelial layer that lines the __ __. The invaginating cells that do not oppose the stromal layer
    form the __, which lines the conjunctival sac.
    • middle mesenchyme
    • anterior chamber
    • conjunctiva
  28. The upper and lower eyelids develop as folds of the surface ectoderm (with a core of mesenchyme). These folds grow toward each other and fuse, only to separate again before birth. The __ ____ form as invaginations of the ectoderm of the conjunctival sacs.
    lacrimal glands
  29. The inner and outer layers of the optic cup that come to overly the lens anteriorly, together with the overlying choroidal mesenchyme, develop into the __ and __ ___ .
    • iris
    • ciliary body
  30. The iris consists of three layers, an inner nonpigmented
    layer continuous with the ___ ___, a pigmented middle layer continuous with the ___ ___, and an outer mesenchymal layer derived
    mostly from neural crest cells.
    • neural retina
    • pigmented retina
  31. The pupillary muscles develop within the __ .
  32. The ciliary processes, ciliary muscle, and suspensory ligaments all develop from the __ ___. The extraocular muscles (medial rectus, etc.) are derived from ___ ___, not pharyngeal arch musculature. Therefore, these muscles are innervated by ___ fibers, and not brachial efferent (BE) fibers.
    • ciliary body
    • occipital somites
    • general somatic efferent (GSE)
  33. microphthalmia
    small eye
  34. anophthalmia
    absence of an eyeball
  35. aphakia
    absence of lens
  36. aniridia
    absence of iris
  37. congenital cataracts
    the lens becomes opaque during embryonic development
  38. congenital glaucoma
    increased intraocular tension
  39. persistent pupillary membrane
    connective tissue strands across the pupil
  40. atresia of the pupil
    persistence of the entire pupillary membrane
  41. cryptophthalmos
    absence of eyelids, so that skin covers the eye
  42. cyclopia
    single eye
  43. synophthalmia
    fusion of the eyes
  44. coloboma
    This deficiency may extend to the inferior portion of the iris ___ ___ and may affect the ciliary body. Fissures in the eyelid __ __are uncommon, but most often occur in the upper lid.
    failure of the choroid fissure to close, a cleft persists on the ventral side of the developing optic nerve and retina.

    • (coloboma iridis)
    • (palpebral coloboma)