Middle Ages - Music

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Author:
Robin
ID:
140545
Filename:
Middle Ages - Music
Updated:
2012-05-02 16:58:19
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Middle Ages
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Description:
Middle Ages History Terms
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  1. A Capella
    Coral music without instrumental accompainment
  2. Counter Tenor
    High Male Voice
  3. Drone
    Sustained pitch for harmonic support
  4. Modes
    Scale patterns with unique order of tones and semitones
  5. Neumes
    earliest form of notation from directional to shapes
  6. Monophonic Texture
    One line of melody - no harmony
  7. Polyphonic Texture
    Two or more melodic lines
  8. Liber Usualis
    Usual book for Mass - Abbey of Solesmes
  9. Musica Enchiradis
    Earliest book of Polyphony - featuring parallel organum
  10. Hildegard Von Bingen
    Religious leader in Rupertsberg, Germany. 1098AD Wrote music and poetry. Advised leaders. Wrote Ordo Virtutum (Play of Virtues)
  11. Haec Dies - Gregorian Chant - 500AD
    Genre
    Gregorian Chant or Plain Chant
  12. Haec Dies - Gregorian Chant
    Composer
    Anonymous
  13. Haec Dies - Gregorian Chant
    Mass Component
    Gradual from Proper Easter Sunday Mass
  14. Haec Dies - Gregorian Chant
    Text
    Psalms 118: 1/24 Old Testement
  15. Haec Dies - Gregorian Chant
    Language
    Latin - Joyful message of Easter
  16. Haec Dies - Gregorian Chant
    Performers
    • Soloist and Unison Choir - responsorial singing
    • Solo: "Haec Dies" - Chorus: "quam fecit"
  17. Haec Dies - Gregorian Chant
    Texture
    • Monophonic
    • 3rd interval is the widest on "eius"
  18. Syllabic Text Setting
    1 note per syllable
  19. Neumatic Text Setting
    2 - 4 notes per syllable
  20. Melismatic Text Setting
    many notes per syllable
  21. Haec Dies - Gregorian Chant
    Mode
    Dorian
  22. Haec Dies - Gregorian Chant
    Text Setting
    Melismatic on "Haec" "Dominus" "Exsultenus"
  23. Notre Dame School
    • Leonin - 12th century - composer of polyphony as 2 part organum
    • Perotin - 13th century - composer of 3 & 4 part organum and substitute clausulae
  24. Ars Nova Definition
    Author
    • "New Art" - notation of rhythm
    • Phillipe de Vitry
  25. Messe de Nostre Dame
    • Mass of our Lady by Guillaumede Machaut
    • 4 voices - earliest polyphony Mass
  26. Chansonnier du roy
    • "Songbook of the King"
    • earliest example of dance music
  27. Bas
    Instruments
    • Indoor
    • Dulcimer(struck box), Lute(guitar), Psaltery(plucked box), rebec(violin), recorder, vielle (violin)
  28. Haut
    Instruments
    • Outdoor
    • Cornetto(trumpet), crumhorn(J-shaped oboe), sackbut(trombone), shawm(oboe)
  29. Middle Ages - Keyboards
    • Portative(organ w/pipes & bellows)
    • Positive(small & portable 1 keyboard w/pipes)
    • Regal(reeds instead of pipes/like accordian)
  30. Middle Ages - Percussion
    • Nakers(pair)
    • Tabor(Bass Drum)
    • Tamborine(wooden frame w/metal disks)
  31. Middle Ages History 476 - 1450AD
    • Roman Catholic Church in power -1000 years
    • music is sacred
    • knighthood and devotion to Virgin Mary raised the status os women
    • Crusades to reclaim Jerusalem from Muslims(lasted 200yrs)
    • Fall of Roman Empire - Dark Ages (plagues & war)
    • Contact w/Islamic culture expanded knowledge of astronomy, mathematics and medicin
    • Gregorian Chant from Pope Gregory Iin 600AD - organized chants for Mass - evolved from Hebrew chanting
  32. Middle Ages Musical Style
    Texture
    Evolution from Monophony to Polyphony
  33. Middle Ages Musical Style
    Notation
    Development of notation from recording chant melodies to representing both pitches and rhythmic values
  34. Middle Ages Musical Style
    Melodic Range
    Began with very narrow steps and as the writing evolved the melodic range increased
  35. Middle Ages Musical Style
    Rhythm
    Unmeasured rhythm and plainchant evolved to polyphony with the development of notation
  36. Haec Dies - Organum - Notre Dame Style
    Composer
    Anonymous (style of Leonin)
  37. Haec Dies - Organum - Notre Dame Style
    Date
    1175AD (12th century)
  38. Haec Dies - Organum - Notre Dame Style
    Source of Text
    Old Testement (Psalms)
  39. Haec Dies - Organum - Notre Dame Style
    Language
    Latin
  40. Haec Dies - Organum - Notre Dame Style
    Performers
    • Soloist (tenor)
    • Choir
  41. Haec Dies - Organum - Notre Dame Style
    Texture
    • Polyphonic - 2 voices
    • cantus firmus - foundation is lower voice
    • Upper voice - newly composed & more rhymically active
  42. Haec Dies - Organum - Notre Dame Style
    Harmonic Intervals
    Perfect 4ths, 5ths and octaves
  43. Discant Style
    Original chant has faster rhythmic values
  44. Organal Style
    Upper voice has faster note values
  45. Organum
    • original polyphony
    • new melodic lines add to existing Gregorian chant
  46. Clausulae
    • defined section within discant-style organum
    • highly melismatic
  47. Haec Dies - Organum - Notre Dame Style
    Organal Style Verse
    "Haec Dies"
  48. Haec Dies - Organum- Notre Dame Style
    Discant Style Verse
    "Domino quonium"
  49. Haec Dies - Organum - Notre Dame Style
    Clausulae Style Verse
    "Domino" and Quonium"
  50. O Mitissima/Virgo/Haec Dies
    Date
    13th Century
  51. O Mitissima/Virgo/Haec Dies
    Genre
    Polytextual Motet
  52. O Mitissima/Virgo/Haec Dies
    Composer
    Anonymous
  53. O Mitissima/Virgo/Haec Dies
    Text
    poems in praise of Virgin Mary and Haec Dies
  54. O Mitissima/Virgo/Haec Dies
    Language
    Latin
  55. O Mittisima/Virgo/Haec Dies
    Texture
    • Polyphonic - 3 voices
    • Top Voice - Triplum - "O Sweetest Virgin Mary"
    • Middle Voice - Duplum - "Virgin of Virgins"
    • Bottom Voice-Cantus Firmus (melismatic)-"This is the Day"
    • Top & Middle Voice in Same Range - syllabic & neumatic
    • Triple metre effect - Holy trinity
  56. O Mittisima/Virgo/Haec Dies
    Harmonic Intervals
    Perfect 4ths, 5ths, and octaves
  57. Ce Fut En Mai
    Date
    Mid 13th century
  58. Ce Fut En Mai
    Genre
    Monophonic Chanson
  59. Ce Fut En Mai
    Composer
    Moniot d'Arras - Trouvere from Northern France
  60. Ce Fut En Mai
    Text Source
    Secular Poem about the narrator watching a Knight court a Lady. When they approach the narrator to ask why he is watching them, the narrator explains that he has lost his lady and the Knight and Lady say they will pray for him.
  61. Ce Fut En Mai
    Language
    Old French w/solo singer
  62. Ce Fut En Mai
    Texture
    Monophonic
  63. Ce Fut en Mai
    Structure
    • Strophic (same music repeated w/every stanza of poem)
    • 5 verses w/12 short lines in each verse
    • No relationship between sad text and happy music
  64. Puis Qu'en Oubli
    Date
    Mid 14th Century
  65. Puis Qu'en Oubli
    Genre
    Polyphonic chanson
  66. Puis Qu'en Oubli
    Composer
    Guillaume De Machaut
  67. Puis Qu'en Oubli
    Text Source
    Secular poem by Machaut (Rondeau-4verse w/refrain)
  68. Puis Qu'en Oubli
    Language
    Old French
  69. Puis Qu'en Oubli
    Translation
    Since I Am Forgotten By You
  70. Puis Qu'en Oubli
    Texture
    Polyphonic w/syncopation
  71. Puis Qu'en Oubli
    Voices
    • 3 male voices - triple meter (top voice has more rhythm)
    • Syllabic and Neumatic text setting
    • 2 lower voices share same range
  72. Puis Qu'en Oubli
    Story
    Poet complains to person he loves, but they have rejected him. He complains that he will never find love again.
  73. Royal Estampie no. 4
    Date
    Late 13th Century
  74. Royal Estampie no. 4
    Genre
    Dance Music
  75. Royal Estampie no. 4
    Composer
    Anonymous
  76. Royal Estampie no. 4
    Texture
    • Monophonic w/some heterophony(2 or more instruments elaborate same melody simultaneously)
    • Narrow melodic range
  77. Royal Estampie no. 4
    Structure
    sectional w/open and closed endings
  78. Royal Estampie no. 4
    Performers
    • variable instruments
    • Shawn, Tamborine, Pipe, Vielle
  79. Royal Estampie no. 4
    Translation
    Stamp Your Foot

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