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  1. accommodation
    In Piaget's theory, dealing with a new event by either modifying an existing scheme or forming a new one
  2. assessment
    The process of observing a sample of student's behavior and drawing inferences about the student's knowledge and abilities
  3. assimilation
    In Piaget's theory, dealing with a new event in a way that is consistent with an existing scheme
  4. Bloom's Taxonomy
    A taxonomy of sic cognitive processes, varying in complexity, that lessons might be designed to foster
  5. challenge
    A situation in which a learner believes that success is possible with sufficient effort
  6. checklist
    An assessment tool with which a teacher evaluates student performance by indicating whether specific behaviors or qualities or present or absent
  7. classroom management
    The establishment and maintenance of a classroom environment conducive to learning and achievement
  8. constructivism
    A theoretical perspective that learners construct (rather than absorb) a body of knowledge from their experiences--knowledge that may or may not be an accurate representation of external reality.
  9. critical thinking
    The process of evaluating the accuracy and worth of information and lines of reasoning
  10. cultural bias
    The extent to which assessment tasks either offend or unfairly penalize some students because of their ethnicity, gender, or socioeconomic status
  11. cultural mismatch
    A situation in which a child's home culture and the school culture hold conflicting expectations for the child's behavior
  12. culture
    The behaviors and belief systems of a long-standing social group
  13. culture shock
    A sense of confusion when a student encounters a culture with behavioral expectations very different from those previously learned
  14. debilitating anxiety
    Anxiety of sufficient intensity that it interferes with performance
  15. declarative knowledge
    Knowledge related to "what is"--that is, to the nature of how things are, were, or will be
  16. educational psychology
    A discipline encompassing psychological principles and theories related to learning, child and adolescent development, motivation, individual and group differences, and psychological assessment, especially as there topics relate to classroom practice
  17. epistemological beliefs
    Beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowledge acquisition
  18. equilibration
    In Piaget's theory, the movement from equilibrium to disequilibrium and back, a process that promotes development or more complex thought and understandings
  19. equilibrium In Piaget's theory, a state of being able to explain new events by using existing schemes
  20. equity (in instruction)
    Instruction without favoritism or bias toward particular individuals or groups of students
  21. ethnic group
    A group of people who have common historical roots, values, beliefs, and behaviors and who share a sense of interdependence. The group's roots either precede the creation of or are external to the country in which the group resides
  22. ethnic identity
    Awareness of one's membership in a particular ethnic or cultural group and willingness to adopt certain behaviors characteristic of the group
  23. formal assessment
    A preplanned, systematic attempt to ascertain what students have learned
  24. guided participation
    A child's performance, with guidance and support, of an activity in the adult world
  25. higher-level thinking
    Thinking that involves going well beyond information specifically learned (e.g., analyzing, applying, or evaluating it)
  26. high-stakes testing
    Practice of using students' performance on a single assessment instrument to make major decisions about students or school personnel
  27. individual constructivism
    A theoretical perspective that focuses on how people, as individuals, construct meaning from the events around them
  28. intelligence
    The ability to modify and adjust one's behaviors in order to accomplish new tasks successfully. It involves many different mental processes and may vary in nature depending on one's culture
  29. intelligence test
    A general measure of current cognitive functioning, used primarily to predict academic achievement over the short run
  30. internalization
    In Vygotsky's theory, the process through which social activities evolve into mental activities
  31. item analysis
    Post-hoc analysis of patterns in students' responses to various items on an assessment instrument
  32. learned helplessness
    A general belief that one is incapable of accomplishing tasks and has little or no control of the environment
  33. learned industriousness
    The recognition that one can succeed at some tasks only with effort, persistence, and well-chosen strategies
  34. learner-directed instruction
    An approach to instruction in which students have considerable say in the issues they address and how they address them
  35. Learning
    text: A relatively permanent change, due to experience, either in behavior or in mental representations or associations
  36. learning disabilities
    A category of special needs characterized by deficiencies in one or more specific cognitive processes rather than in overall cognitive functioning
  37. lower-level question
    A question that requires students to express what they have learned in essentially the same way they learned it--for examples, by reciting a textbook's definition of a concept or describing an application their teacher presented in class
  38. mastery learning
    An approach to instruction in which students learn one topic thoroughly before moving to a subsequent one
  39. maturation
    The unfolding of genetically controlled changes as a child develops
  40. metacognition
    One's knowledge and beliefs about one's own cognitive processes and one's resulting attempts to regular those cognitive processes to maximize learning and memory
  41. moral dilemma
    A situation in which there is no clear-cut answer regarding the morally correct action
  42. morality
    One's general standards about right and wrong
  43. multicultural education
    Instruction that integrates perspectives and experiences of numerous cultural groups throughout the curriculum
  44. positive feedback
    A message that an answer is correct or a task has been well done
  45. prosocial behavior
    Behavior directed toward promoting the well-being of another
  46. reciprocal teaching
    An approach to teaching reading and listening comprehension in which students take turns asking teacherlike questions of their classmates
  47. reflective teaching
    Regular, ongoing examination and critique of one's assumptions and instructional strategies, and revision of them as necessary to enhance students' learning and development
  48. rote learning
    learning information in a relatively uninterpreted form, without making sense of it or attaching much meaning to it
  49. scaffolding
    A support mechanism, provided by a more competent individual, that helps a learner successfully perform a task within his or her zone of proximal development
  50. schema
    In contemporary cognitive psychology, an organized body of knowledge about a specific topic
  51. script
    A schema that involves a predictable sequence of events related to a common activity
  52. self-efficacy
    The belief that one is capable of executing certain behaviors or reaching certain goals
  53. sense of self
    Perceptions, beliefs, judgments, and feelings about oneself
  54. standardization
    The extent to which assessment instruments and procedures involve similar content and format and are administered and score in the same way for everyone
  55. stereotype
    A rigid, simplistic, and erroneous caricature of a particular group of people
  56. stereotype threat
    Awareness of a negative stereotype about one's own group and accompanying uneasiness that low performance will confirm the stereotype; leads (often unintentionally) to a reduction in performance
  57. temperament
    A genetic predisposition to respond in particular ways to one's physical and social environments
  58. zone of proximal development (ZPD)
    In Vygotsky's theory, the range of tasks between one's actual developmental level and one's level of potential development--that is, the range of tasks that one cannot yet perform with the help with the help and guidance of others
  59. cooperative learning
    learning through an instructional and grouping procedure that utilized mixed-ability grouse of students who work cooperatively to achieve certain goals; individual accountability is built in.
  60. developmentally appropriate practice
    A framework or an approach for working with learners in which the teacher considers each learner's age, abilities, developmental level, and competencies and adjusts instruction accordingly
  61. Jean Piaget
    A Swiss biologist who in the 1920s studied child development, in particular cognitive development. Piaget's theories, although criticized today, still exert a significant influence on how we think about cognitive development
  62. self-talk
    Talking to oneself (private speech) as a way of guiding oneself successfully though a task. There verbalization become internalized as silent inner speech
  63. principle
    An established relationship between variables and factors. A statement of a widely held tenet or belief. When research yields similar results time after time, principles are established. Related principles are integrates to form larger theories
  64. principle of learning
    An established explanation about how children learn. A tenet or belief generally accepted as true about how children learn and how we can best foster learning. For example, one principle of learning is that prior knowledge greatly influences a child's ability to understand new information. In this class, our goal as learners is to understand key "principles of learning" and to use/apply these principles in our tutoring
  65. concept
    A mental grouping of objects or events that share something in common (furniture, animals, quadrilaterals). Schemas are networks of related concepts
  66. Prior knowledge
    Knowledge that a child already has acquired and stored in long-term memory. Background knowledge about a particular subject
  67. Cognitive processes
    The ways that a child goes about thinking and making sense of the information/experiences
  68. Metacognitive processes
    The ways that a child goes about thinking his/her own thinking (do I understand this?). Efforts to self regulate one's thinking (am I reading too fast?)
Card Set:
2012-03-08 18:32:12
education malone duke

vocabulary for midterm 1
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