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  1. Module 5
    • Sensation
    • THREE DEFINITONS
    • Adaptation:
    • the decreasing response of the sense organs, the more they are exposed to a continuous level of stimulation
    • Sensation versus perception:
    • relatively meaningless bits of information that result when the brain processes electrical signals that come from the sense organs
    • perceptions:
    • meaningful sensory experiences that result after the brain combines hundreds of sensations
    • THREE DEFINITONS (CONT.)
    • eyes, ears, nose, skin, and tongue are complex, miniaturized, living sense organs that automatically gather information about your environment
    • Transduction:
    • process in which a sense organ changes, or transforms, physical energy into electrical signals that become neural impulses, which may be sent to the brain for processing
    • EYE: VISION
    • Structure and function
    • eyes perform two separate processes
    • first: gather and focus light into precise area in the back of eye
    • second: area absorbs and transforms light waves into electrical impulses
    • process called transduction
  2. EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • Stimulus: Light Waves
    • Invisible�too short
    • wave lengths too short
    • gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet rays
    • Visible�just right
    • Visible spectrum
    • Particular segment of electromagnetic energy that we can see because these waves are the right length to stimulate receptors in the eye
    • Invisible�too long
    • wave lengths longer
    • Radar, FM, TV, shortwave, AM
  3. EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • Structure and function
    • Vision: 7 steps
    • Image reversed
    • Light waves
    • Cornea
    • Pupil
    • Iris
    • Lens
    • Retina
  4. EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • Structure and function
    • Image reversed
    • In the back of the eye, objects appear upside down.
    • somehow the brain turns the objects right side up
    • Light waves
    • light waves are changed from broad beams to narrow, focused ones
  5. EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • Structure and function
    • Cornea
    • rounded, transparent covering over the front of your eye
    • Pupil
    • round opening at the front of the eye that allows light waves to pass into the eye�s interior
  6. EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • Structure and function
    • Iris
    • circular muscle that surrounds the pupil and controls the amount of light entering the eye
    • Lens
    • transparent, oval structure whose curved surface bends and focuses light waves into an even narrower beam
  7. EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • Structure and function
    • Retina
    • located at the very back of the eyeball, is a thin film that contains cells that are extremely sensitive to light
    • light sensitive cells, called photoreceptors, begin the process of transduction by absorbing light waves
  8. EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • Retina:
    • three layers of cells
    • back layer contains two kinds of photoreceptors that begin the process of transduction
    • change light waves into electrical signals
    • rod located primarily in the periphery
    • cone located primarily in the center of the retina called the fovea
  9. EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • rods:
    • photoreceptor that contain a single chemical, called rhodopsin
    • activated by small amounts of light
    • very light sensitive
    • allow us to see in dim light
    • see only black, white and shades of gray
  10. EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • cones:
    • photoreceptors that contain three chemicals called opsins
    • activated in bright light
    • allow us to see color
    • cones are wired individually to neighboring cells
    • allows us to see fine detail
  11. EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • Visual pathways: Eye to brain
    • Optic nerve
    • Primary visual cortex
    • Visual association areas
    • EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • Visual pathways: eye to brain
    • Optic nerve
    • nerve impulses flow through the optic nerve as it exits from the back of the eye
    • the exit point is the �blind spot�
    • the optic nerves partially cross and pass through the thalamus
    • the thalamus relays impulses to the back of the occipital lobe in the right and left hemisphere
    • EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • Visual pathways: eye to brain
    • Primary visual cortex
    • the back of the occipital lobes is where primary visual cortex transforms nerve impulses into simple visual sensations
    • Visual association areas
    • the primary visual cortex sends simple visual sensations to neighboring association areas
  12. EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • Color Vision
    • Trichromatic theory
    • three different kinds of cones in the retina
    • each cone contains one of the three different light-sensitive chemicals, called opsins
    • each of the three opsins is most responsive to wavelengths that correspond to each of the three primary colors
    • blue, green, red
    • all colors can be mixed from these primary colors
  13. EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • Opponent-Process Theory
    • Afterimage
    • visual sensation that continues after the original stimulus is removed
    • ganglion cells in retina and cells in thalamus respond to two pairs of colors�red-green and blue-yellow
    • when excited, respond to one color of the pair
    • when inhibited, respond to complementary pair
  14. EYE: VISION (CONT.)
    • Color Blindness
    • inability to distinguished two or more shades in the color spectrum
    • Monochromatic:
    • total color blindness
    • black and white
    • result of only rods and one kind of functioning cone
    • Dichromatic:
    • trouble distinguishing red from green
    • two kinds of cones
    • inherited genetic defect
    • mostly in males
    • See mostly shades of green
  15. EAR: AUDITION
    • Stimulus:
    • Sound waves
    • stimuli for hearing (audition)
    • ripples of different sizes
    • sound waves travel through space with varying heights and frequency
    • Height
    • distance from the bottom to the top of a sound wave
    • called amplitude
    • Frequency
    • number of sound waves occurring within one second
  16. EAR: AUDITION (CONT.)
    • Loudness
    • subjective experience of a sound�s intensity
    • brain calculates loudness from specific physical energy (amplitude of sound waves)
    • Pitch
    • subjective experience of a sound being high or low
    • brain calculates from specific physical stimuli
    • speed or frequency of sound waves
    • measured in cycles (how many sound waves in one second)
  17. EAR: AUDITION (CONT.)
  18. Measuring sound waves
    • decibel: unit to measure loudness
    • threshold for hearing:
    • 0 decibels (no sound)
    • 140 decibels (pain and permanent hearing loss)
  19. EAR: AUDITION (CONT.)
    EAR: AUDITION (CONT.)
  20. Outer, middle, and inner ear
    • Outer ear
    • consists of three structures
    • external ear
    • auditory canal
    • tympanic membrane
  21. EAR: AUDITION (CONT.)
    • Outer, middle, and inner ear
    • Outer ear
    • external ear
    • oval shaped structure that protrudes from the side of the head
    • function
    • pick up sound waves and then send them down the auditory canal
  22. EAR: AUDITION (CONT.)
    • Outer, middle, and inner ear
    • Outer ear
    • auditory canal
    • long tube that funnels sound waves down its length so that the waves strike the tympanic membrane (ear drum)
  23. EAR: AUDITION (CONT.)
    • Outer, middle, and inner ear
    • Outer ear
    • tympanic membrane
    • taut, thin structure commonly called the eardrum
    • Sound waves strike the tympanic membrane and cause it to vibrate
  24. EAR: AUDITION (CONT.)
    • EAR: AUDITION (CONT.)
    • Outer, middle, and inner ear
    • Middle ear
    • bony cavity sealed at each end by membranes.
    • the membranes are connected by three tiny bones called ossicles
    • hammer, anvil and stirrup
    • hammer is attached to the back of the tympanic membrane
    • anvil receives vibrations from the hammer
    • stirrup makes the connection to the oval window (end membrane)
  25. EAR: AUDITION (CONT.)
    • Outer, middle, and inner ear
    • Inner ear
    • contains two structures sealed by bone
    • cochlea: involved in hearing
    • vestibular system: involved in balance
  26. EAR: AUDITION (CONT.)
    • Cochlea
    • bony coiled exterior that resembles a snail�s shell
    • contains receptors for hearing
    • function is transduction
    • transforms vibrations into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain for processing into auditory information
  27. EAR: AUDITION (CONT.)
    • EAR: AUDITION (CONT.)
    • Auditory brain areas
    • sensations and perceptions
    • two step process occurs after the nerve impulses reach the brain
    • primary auditory cortex
    • top edge of temporal lobe
    • transforms nerve impulses into basic auditory sensations
    • auditory association area
    • combines meaningless auditory sensations into perceptions, which are meaningful melodies, songs, words, or sentences
  28. VESTIBULAR SYSTEM: BALANCE
    • Position and balance
    • vestibular system is located above the cochlea in the inner ear
    • includes semicircular canals
    • bony arches set at different angles
    • each semicircular canal is filled with fluid that moves in response to movements of your head
    • canals have hair cells that respond to the fluid movement
    • function of vestibular system
    • include sensing the position of the head, keeping the head upright, and maintaining balance
    • CHEMICAL SENSES
    • Taste
    • chemical sense because the stimuli are various chemicals
    • tongue
    • surface of the tongue
    • taste buds
  29. CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
    • Tongue
    • Five basic tastes
    • sweet
    • salty
    • sour
    • bitter
    • umami: meaty-cheesy taste
  30. CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
    • Surface of the tongue
    • chemicals, which are the stimuli for taste, break down into molecules
    • molecules mix with saliva and run into narrow trenches on the surface of the tongue
    • molecules then stimulate the taste buds
  31. CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
    • Taste buds
    • shaped like miniature onions
    • receptors for taste
    • chemicals dissolved in saliva activate taste buds
    • produce nerve impulses that reach areas of the brain�s parietal lobe
    • brain transforms impulses into sensations of taste
    • Flavor
    • combination of taste and smell
  32. CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
    • CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
    • Smell, or olfaction
    • Steps for olfaction
    • Stimulus
    • Olfactory cells
    • Sensation and memories
    • Functions of olfaction
  33. CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
    • CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
    • Smell, or olfaction
    • Stimulus
    • we smell volatile substances
    • volatile substances are released molecules in the air at room temperature
    • example:
    • skunk spray, perfumes, warm brownies; not glass or steel
  34. CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
    • Smell, or olfaction
    • Olfactory cells
    • receptors for smell are located in a I-inch-square patch of tissue in the uppermost part of the nasal passages.
    • olfactory cells are covered in mucus
    • which dissolve volatile molecules and stimulate the cells
    • the cells trigger nerve impulses that travel to the brain
    • which interprets the impulses as different smells
  35. CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
  36. Smell, or olfaction
    • Sensations and memories
    • nerve impulses travel to the olfactory bulb
    • impulses are relayed to the primary olfactory cortex
    • cortex transforms nerve impulses into olfactory sensations
    • can identify as many as 10,000 different odors
    • we stop smelling our deodorants or perfumes because of decreased responding
    • called adaptation
  37. CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
    • Smell, or olfaction
    • Functions of olfaction
    • one function: to intensify the taste of food
    • second function: to warn of potentially dangerous foods
    • third function: elicit strong memories; emotional feelings
  38. TOUCH
    • Touch
    • includes pressure, temperature, and pain
  39. TOUCH (CONT.)
    • TOUCH (CONT.)
    • Receptors in the skin
    • skin
    • hair receptors
    • free nerve endings
    • Pacinian corpuscle
    • TOUCH (CONT.)
    • Skin
    • outermost layer
    • thin film of dead cells containing no receptors
    • just below, are first receptors which look like groups of threadlike extensions
    • middle and fatty layer
    • variety of receptors with different shapes and functions
    • some are hair receptors
  40. TOUCH (CONT.)
    • Hair receptors
    • free nerve endings wrapped around the base of each hair follicle
    • hair follicles fire with a burst of activity when first bent
    • if hair remains bent for a period of time, the receptors will cease firing
    • sensory adaptation
    • example: wearing a watch
  41. TOUCH (CONT.)
    • Free nerve endings
    • near bottom of the outer layer of skin
    • have nothing protecting or surrounding them
    • Pacinian corpuscle
    • in fatty layer of skin
    • largest touch sensor
    • highly sensitive to touch
    • responds to vibration and adapts very quickly
  42. TOUCH (CONT.)
    • Brain areas
    • somatosensory cortex
    • located in the parietal lobe
    • transforms nerve impulses into sensations of touch temperature, and pain
  43. PAIN
    • What causes pain?
    • pain: unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that may result from tissue damage, one�s thoughts or beliefs, or environmental stressors
    • pain results from many different stimuli
  44. PAIN (CONT.)
    • PAIN (CONT.)
    • How does the mind stop pain?
    • gate control theory of pain
    • nonpainful nerve impulses compete with pain impulses in trying to reach the brain
    • creates a bottleneck or neutral gate
    • shifting attention or rubbing an injured area decreases the passage of painful impulses
    • result: pain is dulled
  45. PAIN (CONT.)
    • Endorphins
    • chemicals produced by the brain and secreted in response to injury or severe physical or psychological stress
    • pain reducing properties of endorphins are similar to those of morphine
    • brain produces endorphins in situations that evoke great fear, anxiety, stress or bodily injury as well as intense aerobic activity
  46. PAIN (CONT.)
    • Dread
    • connected to pain centers in brain
    • not the act itself that people fear
    • time waiting before event causes dread
  47. Acupuncture
    • trained practitioners insert thin needles into various points on the body�s surface and then manually twirls or electrically stimulates the needles
    • after 10-20 minutes of stimulation, patients often report a reduction in various kinds of pain

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