ch 6 txt doc flash cards.txt

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markfields
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140571
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ch 6 txt doc flash cards.txt
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2012-03-08 16:49:11
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psych
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ch 6 terms
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  1. PERCEPTUAL THRESHOLDS
    • Subliminal stimulus
    • has an intensity that gives a person less than a 50% chance of detecting the stimulus
  2. breast cancer
    • accuracy problems
    • looking for ways to lower the threshold for detecting cancerous tumors and thus save patients
    • recently, use of digital mammograms (allows for images to be enhanced or magnified) is better in detecting cancerous tumors in women
  3. PERCEPTUAL THRESHOLDS (CONT.)
    • E. H. Weber
    • worked on the problem of how we judge whether a stimulus, such as loud music, has increased or decreased in intensity
    • concept of just noticeable difference (JND)
    • refers to the smallest increase or decrease in the intensity of a stimulus that a person is able to detect
    • Weber�s law
    • The increase in intensity of a stimulus needed to produce a just noticeable difference grows in proportion to the intensity of the initial stimulus.
  4. SENSATION VERSUS PERCEPTION
    • Basic Differences
    • Sensations
    • our first awareness of some outside stimulus
    • outside stimulus activates sensory receptors, which in turn produce electrical signals that are transformed by the brain into meaningless bits of information
    • Perceptions
    • the experience we have after our brain assembles and combines thousands of individual sensations into a meaningful pattern or image
  5. SENSATION VERSUS PERCEPTION (CONT.)
    • Changing sensation into perception
    • Stimulus
    • change of energy in the environment, such as light waves, sound waves, mechanical pressure, or chemicals
    • Transduction
    • change physical energy into electrical signals
    • electrical signals are changed into impulses that travel into the brain
    • Brain
    • impulses from senses first go to different primary areas of the brain
  6. SENSATION VERSUS PERCEPTION (CONT.)
    • Changing sensation into perception
    • brain: association areas
    • sensation impulses are sent to the appropriate association area in the brain
    • Personalized perceptions
    • each of us has a unique set of personal experiences, emotions, and memories that are automatically added to our perceptions by other areas of the brain
    • RULES OF ORGANIZATION
    • Structuralist versus Gestalt psychologists
    • Structuralists
    • believed that you add together hundreds of basic elements to form complex perceptions
    • Gestaltists
    • believe our brains follow a set of rules that specify how individual elements are to be organized into a meaningful pattern, or perception
  7. RULES OF ORGANIZATION (CONT.)
    • Organizational rules
    • rules of organization: identified by Gestalt psychologists
    • specify how our brains combine and organize individual pieces or elements into a meaningful perception
    • Figure-ground
    • states: in organizing stimuli, we tend to automatically distinguish between a figure and a ground
    • Similarity
    • states: in organizing stimuli, we group together elements that appear similar
    • RULES OF ORGANIZATION (CONT.)
  8. Closure
    • states: in organizing stimuli, we tend to fill in any missing parts of a figure and see the figure as complete
    • Proximity
    • states: in organizing stimuli, we group together objects that are physically close to one another
    • Simplicity
    • states: stimuli are organized in the simplest way possible
    • Continuity
    • states: in organizing stimuli, we tend to favor the smooth or continuous paths when interpreting a series of points or lines
    • PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY
  9. Size, shape, brightness & color constancy
    • Size constancy
    • refers to our tendency to perceive objects as remaining the same size even when their images on the retina are continually growing or shrinking
    • Shape constancy
    • refers to our tendency to perceive an object as retaining its same shape even though when we view it from different angles, its shape is continually changing its image on the retina
    • PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY (CONT.)
  10. Size, shape, brightness & color constancy
    • Brightness constancy
    • refers to the tendency to perceive brightness as remaining the same in changing illumination
    • Color constancy
    • refers to the tendency to perceive colors as remaining stable despite differences in lighting
    • DEPTH PERCEPTION
  11. Binocular (two eyes) depth cues
    • Depth perception
    • refers to the ability of your eye and brain to add a third dimension, depth, to all visual perceptions, even though images projected on the retina are in only two dimensions, height, and width
    • Binocular depth cues
    • depends on the movement of both eyes
    • Convergence
    • refers to a binocular cue for depth perception based on signals sent from muscles that turn the eyes
    • DEPTH PERCEPTION
    • DEPTH PERCEPTION (CONT.)
  12. Retinal disparity
    • refers to a binocular depth cue that depends on the distance between the eyes
    • DEPTH PERCEPTION (CONT.)
    • DEPTH PERCEPTION (CONT.)
  13. Monocular depth cues
    • produced by signals from a single eye
    • Linear perspective
    • monocular depth cue that results as parallel lines come together, converge, in the distance
    • Relative size
    • monocular depth cue that results when we expect two objects to be the same size and they are not
    • Interposition
    • monocular depth cue that comes into play when objects overlap
  14. DEPTH PERCEPTION (CONT.)
  15. Monocular depth cues
    • Light and shadow
    • monocular depth cues where brightly lit objects appear closer, while objects in shadows appear farther away
    • Texture gradient
    • monocular depth cue in which areas with sharp, detailed texture are interpreted as being closer and those with less sharpness and poorer detail are perceived as more distant
    • DEPTH PERCEPTION (CONT.)
  16. Monocular depth cues
    • Atmospheric perspective
    • monocular depth cue that is created by the presence of dust, smog, clouds, or water vapor
    • Motion parallax
    • monocular depth cue based on the speed of moving objects
    • ILLUSIONS
  17. Strange perceptions
    • Illusion
    • a perceptual experience in which you perceive an image as being so strangely distorted that, in reality, it cannot and does not exist
    • Impossible figure
    • perceptual experience in which a drawing seems to defy basic geometric laws
    • ILLUSIONS (CONT.)
    • SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION
    • Subliminal Message
    • brief auditory or visual message that is presented below the absolute threshold
    • means that there is less than a 50% chance that the message will be perceived
    • Self-fulfilling prophecies
    • involve having strong beliefs about changing some behavior and then acting, unknowingly, to change that behavior
    • EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION
  18. Definition
    • a group of psychic experiences that involve perceiving or sending information (images) outside normal sensory processes or channels
    • Four general abilities
    • telepathy
    • ability to transfer one�s thoughts to another or to read the thoughts of others
    • precognition
    • ability to foretell events
    • EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION (CONT.)
  19. Clairvoyance
    • ability to perceive events or objects that are out of sight
    • Psychokinesis
    • ability to exert mind over matter; moving objects
    • Believing in ESP
    • recent Gallup polls report 41% of adult Americans believe in ESP
    • 31% believe in communication between minds without the use of regular senses
    • 21% believe they can communicate mentally with someone who has died
    • 55% believe in psychics

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