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Explain how the water molecule is "polar".
THE OXYGEN HEMISPHERE IS SLIGHTLY NEGATIVE AND THE HYDROGEN HEMISPHERE IS SLIGHTLY POSITIVE.
How would you classify a cloudy mixture of cells in water?
Be able to identify a reaction pathway that absorbs energy. This would apply to photosynthesis. The graph ramps upwards. See Figure 2-20 p. 51 (top graph)
What are three key functions of proteins?
THEY HELP TO FIGHT DISEASE (antibodies).
THEY CONTROL THE RATE OF REACTIONS (enzymes).
THEY MOVE SUBSTANCES INTO AND OUT OF CELLS (membrane channels & pumps)
What are 3 key facts about enzymes?
ENZYMES ARE PROTEINS.
THE SHAPE OF THE ENZYME ALLOWS IT TO DO ITS JOB
ENZYMES WORK BEST AT A SPECIFIED ph
Who are the prokayotes (These cells do NOT have a nucleus)?
What is the function of mitochondria?
To convert the chemical energy stored in food (ex. glucose) into usable energy (ATP)
What is the function of the cell membrane?
REGULATION OF THE MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS INTO AND OUT OF THE CELL
What is the fate of a cell put into fresh water (similar to distilled water)?
THE MOVEMENT OF WATER INTO THE CELL WILL BUILD INTERNAL OSMOTIC PRESSURE UNTIL THE CELL BURSTS
How does glucose (a molecule too large to fit through the cracks in the membrane) get into the cell to begin glycolysis?
On a graphic of a chloroplast be able to identify a single thylakoid.
Why are most plants green?
BECAUSE THEY REFLECT GREEN LIGHT; GREEN LIGHT IS NOT ABSORBED
What are the products of photosynthesis?
OXYGEN GAS & HIGH ENERGY SUGARS
In Case A a burning candle is covered by a jar. In Case B a burning candle next to a green plant is covered by a jar. Why will the candle in Case B burn longer before it goes out?
OXYGEN PROVIDED BY THE PLANT CAUSES THE CANDLE TO BURN LONGER.
What is the function of NADP+ in photosynthesis?
What are the 3 parts of the ATP molecule?
ADENINE, RIBOSE & THREE PHOSPHATE GROUPS
How is energy released from ATP?
WHEN A PHOSPHATE GROUP IS REMOVED
Where do the LIR/Calvin Cycle occur?
Where is the stroma?
THE FLUID OUTSIDE OF THE THYLAKOIDS
How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration linked?
THE PRODUCTS OF PHTOTSYNTHESIS ARE THE REACTANTS/SUBSTRATES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION
What is the correct sequence of events in cellular respiration? Repeat after me…
GLYCOLYSIS -> KREBS CYCLE -> ETC
What is the substrate (starting molecule) for glycolysis?
What does it mean for a process to be "aerobic"
IT REQUIRES OXYGEN
What gas does the Kreb Cycle produce?
What are the substrates and products of the Krebs Cycle?
PYRUVIC ACID YIELDS CARBON DIOXIDE
Where is the ETC?
INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE
Which molecules pass high-energy electrons to the ETC?
NADH & FADH2
Approximately how many ATPs are made from one glucose?
What makes bread airy and spongy?