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1. Zygote: As the zygote moves down the fallopian tube, it duplicates, at first slowly then more rapidly
2. Blastocyst: By the fourth day it forms a hollow, fluid-filled ball called a blastocyst. The inner cells, called the embryonic disk, will become the new organisim. The outer cells or trophoblast will provide protective covering.
3. Implantation: At the end of the first week, the blastocyst begins to implant in the uterine lining.
- Female reproductive organs:
- -Fallopian tubes
Periods of Prenatal Development
- Period Length Key Events
- Zygote - 2wks - Fertilization, Implantation and start of placenta
- Embryo- 6wks - Arms, legs, face, organs, muscles all develop, heart begins beating
- Fetus - 30 wks-"growth and finishing"
(See table 3.1)
Any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period.
Ex. Tobacco and Alcohol
- Depends on the following factors:
- -Other negative influences
- -Best known effect of smoking is low birth weight
- -If pregnant woman stops smoking at anytime (even during last trimester) she reduces the possibility of an underweight baby
- -Nicotine constricts blood vessels, lessens blood flow to the uterus and causes placenta to grow abnormally. Reduces transfer of nutrients, so the fetus can gain weight properly.
- -Nicotine also rises concentration of carbon monoxide, which damages the central nervous system and slows body growth.
During prenatal development causes children to be fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
A range of physical, mental and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure.
- Children with FASD display:
- -Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
- -Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (p-FAS)
- -Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
- Displays the folowing:
- 1. Slow physical growth
- 2. Pattern of 3 facial abnormalities (short eyelid openings, thin upper lip, or indentation running from the bottom of the nose to the upper lip)
- 3. Brain injury (memory, language, communication, etc.)
Paritial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (p-FAS)
- Characterized by:
- 1. 2 of 3 facial abnormalities (from FAS)
- 2. Brain injury again from FAS
Alcohol-related neurodevelopment disorder (ARND)
- At least three areas of mental functioning are impaired, despite typical physical growth and absence of faical abnormalities.
- -Less common than in FAS
Stages of Childbirth
- Stage 1.
- -Dilation and effacement of the cervix
- Stage 2
- -Birth of the baby
- Stage 3
- -Delivery of the placenta
Preterm vs. Small-for-date
Preterm: born weeks before their due date. May be appropriate weight for length of pregnancy.
Small-for-date: May be born at due date or preterm. Below expected wieght for length of pregnancy.
(APGAR: Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration) Assess the newborn's physical condition quickly
Signs: Heart rate, Respiratory effort, Reflex irritability, Muscle tone, and color (See Table 3.3)
Inadequate oxygen supply
An inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation.
- Reflexes are the following:
- -Eye blink
- -Palmar grasp
- -Tonic neck
(See table 3.4)