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2012-03-08 23:59:56

Study Guide 1
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  1. What is Psychology?
    The discipline concern with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment
  2. What is Pyschobabble? List Examples of Psychobabble.
    methods and techniques that are presented as being sceintifically proven but have no research to support their claims.
  3. How does psychobabble differ from serious psychology?
    • Serious psychology is more complex, more informative and far more helpfull the psychobabble
  4. What is the definition critical thinking?
    Critical thinking- the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgement on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote
  5. List the eight essential critical thinking guidelines
    • 1. ask questions
    • 2. define your terms
    • 3. examine the evidence
    • 4. Analyze assumptions and biases
    • 5. aviod emotional reasoning
    • 6. dont oversimplify
    • 7. Consider other interpretation
    • 8. tolerate uncertainty
  6. List some psychological practitioners
    Psychological Practitioners- naturalistic, laboraty observation, inventories, objective tests
  7. What does Ph.D and Psy.D M.D. and Ed.D?
    • Ph.D- Doctor of Philosophy
    • Psy.D M.D- Doctor of Psychology
    • Ed.D- Doctor of Education
  8. Definition of Hypothesis
    Hypothesis- a statement that attempts to describe or explain a given behavior
  9. Purpose of Informed Consent
    Researchers must protect participants from physical or mental harm
  10. What is the difference between Laboratory and Naturalistic Observation?
    Naturalistic is for observation in normal social enviroment while Laboratory observation is done in a well docummented area
  11. Whats the difference between projective and objective testing?
    Objective testing measures beliefs, feeling, or behaviors of an aware individual projective tests are designed to tap unconsious feeling and motives
  12. What is a case study
    A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated.
  13. Definition of Mental Disorder
    Any behavior or emtional state that causes an individual great suffering, is self-destructive, seriously impairs the persons ability to work or get along with others, or endangers others or the community
  14. DSM Definition
    • Used to diagnose mental disorders.
    • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
  15. Definition of GAD ( General anxiety disorder)
    A continues state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry or dread, apprehension, difficuties in concentration and signs of motor tension
  16. Definition of PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder)
    • reliving the trauma in recurrent, intrusive thoughts, a sense of detachment from others and a loss of interest infamiliar activities
  17. Definition of Panic Disorder
    a person has recurring attacks of intense fear of panic
  18. Definition of Phobia
    is an exaggerated fear of a specific situation, activity, or thing
  19. Definition of Agoraphobia
    Being trapped in a crowd Public Place, where escape might be difficult or where help might be unavailable if the person has a panic attack.
  20. Definition of OCD ( Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)
    Characterized by recurrent, persistent, unwished-for thoughts or images and by repetitive, ritualized behaviors that the person feels must carried out to aviod disaster.
  21. Definition of Major Depression
    Major Depression involves emotional, behavioral, cognitive and physical charges severe enough to disrupt a person's ordinary functioning and lasting at least two weeks
  22. Definition of Bipolar Disorder
    When people experience at least one episode of mania alternating with episodes of depression
  23. Definition of Personality Disorders
    Involve maladaptive traits that cause great distress or inability to get along with others
  24. Definition of Paranoid Personality Disorder
    A group of conditions called eccentric personality disorders. people with these disorders seem to be odd, or peculiar. most are paranoid, worried, or suspicious
  25. Definition of Narcissistic Personality Disorder
    A mental disorder in which people have an inflated sense of their own importance and a deep need for admiration
  26. Definition of APD (Antisocial personality disorder)
    Characterized by a life long pattern of irresponsible, antisocial behavior such as law breaking , violence, and other impulsive reckless acts
  27. Definition of DID ( Dissociative Identity Disorder)
    is a controversal disorder marked by the apparent appearence within one personalities, each with its own name and traits, formerly known as multiple personality disorder.
  28. Definition of Schizophrenia
    A psychotic disorder marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized and incoherent speech, in appropriate behavior, and cognitive impairments
  29. Definition of Antipsychotic Drugs
    Drugs used primary for treating schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
  30. Definition of Antidepressant drugs
    Drugs used primarily in the treatment of mood disorders, especially depression and anxiety
  31. Definition of Tranquilizers
    Drugs commonly but often inappropriatelly prescribed for patients who complain of unhappiness, anxiety, or worry
  32. Definition of Psychodynamic therapies
    process by which the client transfers emotional feelings toward other important people in his or her life
  33. Definition of Transference
    the clients transfer of emotional elements of his or her life (inner) usually feelings about the clients parents- outward onto the analyst
  34. Definition of Behavior Therapy
    A form of therapy that applies principles of classical and operant conditioning to help people change self-defeating or problematic behaviors
  35. Definition of Skills Training
    in behavior therapy, an effort to teach the clients skills that he/she may lack, as well as news constructive behaviors to replace self-defeating ones
  36. Definition of Cognative Therapy
    a form of theraapy designed to indentify and change irrational, unproductive ways of thinking and hence to reduce negative emotion and their self-defeating consequences.
  37. Definition of Humanistic Therapy
    A form of psychotherapy based on the philosophly of humanism, which emphasizes the clients free will to change rather than past conflicts
  38. Definition of Client Centered Therapy
    A humanist approach, devised by carl rogers, which emphasizes the therapist's empathy with the client and the use of unconditional positive regard.
  39. Definition of Therapeutic Alliance
    the bond of confidence and mutal understanding established between therapist and client, which allows them to work together to solve the clients problems