Medical Terminology Ch. 2

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Author:
Gabriella
ID:
140638
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Medical Terminology Ch. 2
Updated:
2012-03-09 12:35:47
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Level Body organization
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Body, cell, organs, systems, tissues
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  1. human body made of
    cells, tissues, organs, systems
  2. cell
    • cell membrane
    • cytoplasm
    • nucleus
    • cytology
  3. Cytology
    study of cells and their functions
  4. no matter what shape or function all cells have
    nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane
  5. Tissues
    A tissue is formed when like cells are grouped together and function together to perform a specific activity.

    • connective
    • epithelial
    • muscle
    • nervous
  6. Histology
    the study of tissue
  7. Muscle Tissue
    Muscle tissue produces movement in the body through contraction, shortening in length, and is composed of individual muscle cells called muscle fibers.
  8. Three basic types of muscles
    • skeletal muscles- attached to bone
    • smooth muscles- found in internal organs-blood vessels
    • cardiac- heart
  9. Epithelial Tissues
    • epithelium found throughout the body
    • composed of close-packed cells
    • form the covering for and lining of body structures.
    • protective layer
    • absorbs and secretes substances
    • excretes wastes (kidney tubules)
  10. Connective tissues
    • supporting and protectin tissue in body structures
    • adipose - provides protective padding around body structures
    • bone- structural support for whole body
    • cartilage- shock absorber in joints
    • tendons- tightly connect muscle to bone
  11. Nervous Tissue
    • Nervous tissue is made up of cells called neurons that form
    • allows for conduction of electrical impulses between brain and rest of the body.
    • brain
    • nerves
    • spinal cord
  12. Organs/ Organ Systems
    • composed of several different types of tissue that work as a unit to perform special functions.
    • Integumentary
    • Musculoskeletal
    • Cardiovascular
    • Blood
    • Lymphatic
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive/GI
    • Urinary
    • Female Reproductive
    • Male reproductive
    • Endocrine
    • Nervous
    • Special senses
    • ophthamology
    • Otorhinolaryngology
  13. Body Planes
    • Coronal
    • coronal section
    • cross-section
    • frontal plane
    • frontal section
    • horizontal plane
    • longitudinal
    • median plane
    • sagittal plane
    • sagittal section
    • transverse plane
    • transverse section
  14. Sagittal plane/ Median plane
    • runs lengthwise
    • front to back
    • divides the body or any of its parts into right and left portions
  15. Frontal plane/coronal plane
    divides body into front and back portions
  16. Transverse plane/horizontal plane
    • crosswise plane that runs parallel to the ground.
    • upper and lower portions of the body.
  17. cross-section and longitudinal section
    • longitudinal section - produced by a lengthwise slice along the long axis of a structure
    • cross-section- view produced by a slice perpendicular to the long axis of the structure
  18. Body Regions
    • Abdominal
    • brachial
    • cephalic
    • crural
    • dorsum
    • gluteal
    • lower extremeties
    • pelvic region
    • thoracic region
    • trunk
    • upper extremities
    • vertebral region
  19. Cephalic region
    the entire head
  20. cervical region
    neck region that connects to the trunk
  21. Trunk
    • the torso
    • sub-divided into different regions
    • anterior and posterior
  22. Anterior side
    • thoracic
    • abdominal
    • pelvic
    • pubic
  23. Posterior side
    • dorsum-back
    • vertebral region
    • gluteal-buttock
  24. Upper extremeties
    Lower extremeties
    attached to the trunk
  25. brachial regions
    the arms
  26. Crural regions
    lower extremities
  27. Body cavities
    • abdominal
    • abdominalpelvic
    • cranial
    • diaphragm
    • mediastinum
    • parietal layer
    • parietal peritoneum
    • parietal pleura
    • pelvic cavity
    • pericardial
    • peritoneum
    • pleura
    • pleural
    • spinal
    • thoracic
    • viscera
    • visceral layer
    • visceral peritoneum
    • visceral pleura
  28. cranial cavity
    contains the brain
  29. spinal cavity
    contains spinal cord
  30. ventral cavities
    • thoracic cavity
    • abdominalpelvic cavity
  31. Thoracic cavity contains
    two lungs and mediastinum
  32. Mediastinum contains
    The heart, aorta, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
  33. Diaphragm
    The physical wall between the thoracic cavity and the abdominalpelvic cavity
  34. abdominal cavity
    • divided into superior abdominal cavity and inferior pelvic cavity
    • The organs are thought of as one group referred to as the internal organs or viscera

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